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Building Brand Awareness in Dynamic Oligopoly Markets

Author

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  • Prasad A. Naik

    () (Department of Marketing, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616)

  • Ashutosh Prasad

    () (School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083)

  • Suresh P. Sethi

    () (School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083)

Abstract

Companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars annually on advertising to build and maintain awareness for their brands in competitive markets. However, awareness formation models in the marketing literature ignore the role of competition. Consequently, we lack both the empirical knowledge and normative understanding of building brand awareness in dynamic oligopoly markets. To address this gap, we propose an N-brand awareness formation model, design an extended Kalman filter to estimate the proposed model using market data for five car brands over time, and derive the optimal closed-loop Nash equilibrium strategies for every brand. The empirical results furnish strong support for the proposed model in terms of both goodness-of-fit in the estimation sample and cross-validation in the out-of-sample data. In addition, the estimation method offers managers a systematic way to estimate ad effectiveness and forecast awareness levels for their particular brands as well as competitors' brands. Finally, the normative analysis reveals an inverse allocation principle that suggests--contrary to the proportional-to-sales or competitive parity heuristics--that large (small) brands should invest in advertising proportionally less (more) than small (large) brands.

Suggested Citation

  • Prasad A. Naik & Ashutosh Prasad & Suresh P. Sethi, 2008. "Building Brand Awareness in Dynamic Oligopoly Markets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(1), pages 129-138, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:54:y:2008:i:1:p:129-138
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1070.0755
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ijrema:v:34:y:2017:i:4:p:761-779 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Guidolin, Mariangela & Guseo, Renato, 2015. "Technological change in the U.S. music industry: Within-product, cross-product and churn effects between competing blockbusters," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 35-46.
    3. Krishnamoorthy, Anand & Prasad, Ashutosh & Sethi, Suresh P., 2010. "Optimal pricing and advertising in a durable-good duopoly," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 200(2), pages 486-497, January.
    4. Anshuman Chutani & Suresh Sethi, 2012. "Cooperative Advertising in a Dynamic Retail Market Oligopoly," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 347-375, December.
    5. James, Waters, 2015. "Do vegetarian marketing campaigns promote a vegan diet?," MPRA Paper 66737, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus & Stöckl, Matthias, 2012. "The Effect of Marketing Spending on Sales in the Premium Car Segment: New Evidence from Germany," Working Papers in Economics 2012-2, University of Salzburg.
    7. Huang, Jian & Leng, Mingming & Liang, Liping, 2012. "Recent developments in dynamic advertising research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 220(3), pages 591-609.
    8. Erickson, Gary M., 2009. "An oligopoly model of dynamic advertising competition," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 197(1), pages 374-388, August.
    9. Olivier Rubel & Prasad A. Naik & Shuba Srinivasan, 2011. "Optimal Advertising When Envisioning a Product-Harm Crisis," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(6), pages 1048-1065, November.
    10. Ashwin Aravindakshan & Prasad Naik, 2011. "How does awareness evolve when advertising stops? The role of memory," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 315-326, September.
    11. Srinath Gopalakrishna & Jason Garrett & Murali K. Mantrala & Shrihari Sridhar, 2016. "Assessing sales contest effectiveness: the role of salesperson and sales district characteristics," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 589-602, September.

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