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Vendor Certification and Appraisal: Implications for Supplier Quality

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  • Iny Hwang

    () (College of Business, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Minnesota 56001)

  • Suresh Radhakrishnan

    () (School of Management, University of Texas at Dallas, SM41, Richardson, Texas 75083)

  • Lixin (Nancy) Su

    () (School of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Business, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong)

Abstract

We examine the buyer's problem of inducing the supplier's quality effort using two arrangements: the appraisal regime and the certification regime. In the appraisal regime, the buyer inspects the units supplied and either charges a penalty for defective units identified during inspection or pays the unit price for good units. In the certification regime, the supplier obtains vendor certification and the buyer pays the unit price for all units supplied. The inspection technology and the certification process provide noisy information on the supplier's quality effort. In the appraisal regime, the buyer implements the supplier's high-quality and low-inspection. The supplier's expected profit is greater than his reservation profit because of an additional agency cost: The buyer has to prevent the supplier from performing unwanted/preemptive inspection (which gives rise to indirect costs from delay, etc.). This additional agency cost arises precisely when the effectiveness of inspection is high. This provides a moral-hazard-based rationale for the increasing use of certification (such as ISO 9000) in spite of (in fact, because of) the increasing effectiveness of inspection. The potential for additional agency cost incurred by the buyer in the appraisal regime highlights an indirect cost associated with inspection.

Suggested Citation

  • Iny Hwang & Suresh Radhakrishnan & Lixin (Nancy) Su, 2006. "Vendor Certification and Appraisal: Implications for Supplier Quality," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(10), pages 1472-1482, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:52:y:2006:i:10:p:1472-1482
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1060.0557
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Yim, Andrew, 2010. "Quality Cost and Failure Risk in the Choice of Single versus Multiple Sourcing," MPRA Paper 27858, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Hsieh, Chung-Chi & Liu, Yu-Te, 2010. "Quality investment and inspection policy in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 202(3), pages 717-729, May.
    3. Tzavara Dionisia & Heritier Adrienne, 2012. "Quality and Environmental Regulation: Verifying Compliance along the Supply Chain," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 14(2), pages 1-24, August.
    4. Yoo, Seung Ho & Shin, Hojung & Park, Myung-Sub, 2015. "New product development and the effect of supplier involvement," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 107-120.
    5. Xie, Gang & Yue, Wuyi & Wang, Shouyang & Lai, Kin Keung, 2011. "Quality investment and price decision in a risk-averse supply chain," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 214(2), pages 403-410, October.
    6. Li, Dong & Nagurney, Anna, 2015. "A general multitiered supply chain network model of quality competition with suppliers," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 170(PA), pages 336-356.
    7. Dionisia Tzavara & Adrienne Héritier, 2011. "Quality and Environmental Regulation: Verifying Compliance along the Supply Chain," RSCAS Working Papers 2011/16, European University Institute.
    8. Dionisia Tzavara and Adrienne Héritier, 2011. "Quality and Environmental Regulation: Verifying Compliance along the Supply Chain," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 16, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
    9. Pun, Hubert & Sebastian Heese, H., 2014. "Outsourcing to suppliers with unknown capabilities," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(1), pages 108-118.
    10. Aust, Gerhard & Bräuer, Ina & Buscher, Udo, 2014. "A note on “Quality investment and inspection policy in a supplier-manufacturer supply chain”," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 234(3), pages 910-915.
    11. DeYong, Gregory D. & Pun, Hubert, 2015. "Is dishonesty the best policy? Supplier behaviour in a multi-tier supply chain," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 170(PA), pages 1-13.
    12. Yan Dong & Kefeng Xu & Yi Xu & Xiang Wan, 2016. "Quality Management in Multi-Level Supply Chains with Outsourced Manufacturing," Production and Operations Management, Production and Operations Management Society, vol. 25(2), pages 290-305, February.

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