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Breaking Resilient Patterns of Inequality in Santiago de Chile: Challenges to Navigate towards a More Sustainable City

Author

Listed:
  • Ignacio C. Fernández

    () (School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA)

  • David Manuel-Navarrete

    () (School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA)

  • Robinson Torres-Salinas

    () (Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción 4070386, Chile)

Abstract

Resilience can have desirable and undesirable consequences. Thus, resilience should not be viewed as a normative desirable goal, but as a descriptor of complex systems dynamics. From this perspective, we apply resilience thinking concepts to assess the dynamics of inequality, spatial segregation, and sustainability in Chile’s capital city of Santiago. Chile’s economy boosted since democracy was restored in 1990, but continuity of neoliberal reforms and transformations of Pinochet’s dictatorship (1973–1990) seem to have locked Chilean cities in resilient, albeit unsustainable, patterns of uneven development. Socio-economic data from Santiago shows highly resilient patterns of urban inequality and segregation from 1992 to 2009 despite democratic efforts, political agendas and discourses packed with calls for reducing poverty and inequality. We present a conceptual model based on the notion of stability landscapes to explore potential trade-offs between resilience and sustainable development. We mapped Santiago’s spatio-temporal inequality trends and explored if these patterns support an inequality-resilience stability landscape. Analysis of temporal and spatial distribution of development assets across four human development dimensions (i.e., income, education, health, democracy) revealed potential socio-political and spatial feedbacks supporting the resilience of inequality and segregation in Santiago. We argue that urban sustainability may require breaking this resilience, a process where bottom-up stressors such as social movements could play a key role.

Suggested Citation

  • Ignacio C. Fernández & David Manuel-Navarrete & Robinson Torres-Salinas, 2016. "Breaking Resilient Patterns of Inequality in Santiago de Chile: Challenges to Navigate towards a More Sustainable City," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(8), pages 1-19, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:8:p:820-:d:76329
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alves, Fatima & Elacqua, Gregory & Koslinki, Mariane & Martinez, Matias & Santos, Humberto & Urbina, Daniela, 2015. "Winners and losers of school choice: Evidence from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Santiago, Chile," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 25-34.
    2. Paul W. Posner, 2012. "Targeted Assistance and Social Capital: Housing Policy in Chile's Neoliberal Democracy," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(1), pages 49-70, January.
    3. Ron Johnston & Michael Poulsen & James Forrest, 2011. "Evaluating Changing Residential Segregation In Auckland, New Zealand, Using Spatial Statistics," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 102(1), pages 1-23, February.
    4. Anthony J. Bebbington & Anis A. Dani & Arjan de Haan & Michael Walton, 2008. "Institutional Pathways to Equity : Addressing Inequality Traps," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6411.
    5. Felipe Livert Aquino & Xabier Gainza, 2014. "Understanding Density in an Uneven City, Santiago de Chile: Implications for Social and Environmental Sustainability," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(9), pages 1-22, September.
    6. Derissen, Sandra & Quaas, Martin F. & Baumgärtner, Stefan, 2011. "The relationship between resilience and sustainability of ecological-economic systems," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(6), pages 1121-1128, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Baodong Liu & Yehua Dennis Wei & Christopher A. Simon, 2017. "Social Capital, Race, and Income Inequality in the United States," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(2), pages 1-14, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    inequalities; uneven development; segregation; resilience; transformability; sustainable development;

    JEL classification:

    • Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q3 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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