IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model


  • Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach

    (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081HV, The Netherlands)

  • Edward Randal

    (NZ Centre for Sustainable Cities, University of Otago, Wellington 6242, New Zealand)

  • Pengjun Zhao

    (Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China)

  • Philippa Howden-Chapman

    (NZ Centre for Sustainable Cities, University of Otago, Wellington 6242, New Zealand)


Physical activity has numerous physical and mental health benefits, and active commuting (walking or cycling to work) can help meet physical activity recommendations. This study investigated socioeconomic differences in active commuting, and assessed the impact of urban land-use and public transport policies on active commuting in the Wellington region in New Zealand. We combined data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey and GIS data on land-use and public transport facilities with the Wellington Integrated Land-Use, Transportation and Environment (WILUTE) model, and forecasted changes in active commuter trips associated with changes in the built environment. Results indicated high income individuals were more likely to commute actively than individuals on low income. Several land-use and transportation factors were associated with active commuting and results from the modelling showed a potential increase in active commuting following an increase in bus frequency and parking fees. In conclusion, regional level policies stimulating environmental factors that directly or indirectly affect active commuting may be a promising strategy to increase population level physical activity. Access to, and frequency of, public transport in the neighbourhood can act as a facilitator for a more active lifestyle among its residents without negatively affecting disadvantaged groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Joreintje Dingena Mackenbach & Edward Randal & Pengjun Zhao & Philippa Howden-Chapman, 2016. "The Influence of Urban Land-Use and Public Transport Facilities on Active Commuting in Wellington, New Zealand: Active Transport Forecasting Using the WILUTE Model," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(3), pages 1-14, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:242-:d:65174

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Reid Ewing & Robert Cervero, 2010. "Travel and the Built Environment," Journal of the American Planning Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 76(3), pages 265-294.
    2. Saelens, B.E. & Sallis, J.F. & Black, J.B. & Chen, D., 2003. "Neighborhood-Based Differences in Physical Activity: An Environment Scale Evaluation," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 93(9), pages 1552-1558.
    3. Gillen, David W., 1977. "Estimation and specification of the effects of parking costs on urban transport mode choice," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 186-199, April.
    4. Zhao, Zhenxiang & Kaestner, Robert, 2010. "Effects of urban sprawl on obesity," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 779-787, December.
    5. Pucher, J. & Buehler, R. & Bassett, D.R. & Dannenberg, A.L., 2010. "Walking and cycling to health: A comparative analysis of city, state, and international data," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 100(10), pages 1986-1992.
    6. Cerin, Ester & Leslie, Eva & Owen, Neville, 2009. "Explaining socio-economic status differences in walking for transport: An ecological analysis of individual, social and environmental factors," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(6), pages 1013-1020, March.
    7. Pengjun Zhao & Ralph Chapman & Edward Randal & Philippa Howden-Chapman, 2013. "Understanding Resilient Urban Futures: A Systemic Modelling Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 5(7), pages 1-22, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Yang, Shuo & Fan, Yingling & Deng, Wei & Cheng, Long, 2019. "Do built environment effects on travel behavior differ between household members? A case study of Nanjing, China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 360-370.
    2. José Manuel Naranjo Gómez, 2016. "Impacts on the Social Cohesion of Mainland Spain’s Future Motorway and High-Speed Rail Networks," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(7), pages 1-22, July.
    3. Yuhuan Zhang & Huapu Lu & Shengxi Luo & Zhiyuan Sun & Wencong Qu, 2017. "Human-Scale Sustainability Assessment of Urban Intersections Based upon Multi-Source Big Data," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(7), pages 1-22, July.
    4. Martín, Belén & Páez, Antonio, 2019. "Individual and geographic variations in the propensity to travel by active modes in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 103-113.
    5. Jiacheng Jiao & John Rollo & Baibai Fu, 2021. "The Hidden Characteristics of Land-Use Mix Indices: An Overview and Validity Analysis Based on the Land Use in Melbourne, Australia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(4), pages 1-19, February.
    6. Letizia Appolloni & Alberto Giretti & Maria Vittoria Corazza & Daniela D’Alessandro, 2020. "Walkable Urban Environments: An Ergonomic Approach of Evaluation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(20), pages 1-31, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Shima Hamidi & Somayeh Moazzeni, 2019. "Examining the Relationship between Urban Design Qualities and Walking Behavior: Empirical Evidence from Dallas, TX," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(10), pages 1-14, May.
    2. David Perez Barbosa & Junyi Zhang & Hajime Seya, 2016. "Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 13(2), pages 1-23, February.
    3. Kevin Credit & Elizabeth Mack, 2019. "Place-making and performance: The impact of walkable built environments on business performance in Phoenix and Boston," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 46(2), pages 264-285, February.
    4. Yang, Yongjiang & Sasaki, Kuniaki & Cheng, Long & Tao, Sui, 2022. "Does the built environment matter for active travel among older adults: Insights from Chiba City, Japan," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    5. Dorsa Alipour & Hussein Dia, 2023. "A Systematic Review of the Role of Land Use, Transport, and Energy-Environment Integration in Shaping Sustainable Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(8), pages 1-29, April.
    6. De Vos, Jonas, 2018. "Do people travel with their preferred travel mode? Analysing the extent of travel mode dissonance and its effect on travel satisfaction," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 261-274.
    7. Kevin Chan & Steven Farber, 2020. "Factors underlying the connections between active transportation and public transit at commuter rail in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area," Transportation, Springer, vol. 47(5), pages 2157-2178, October.
    8. Schneider, Robert James, 2011. "Understanding Sustainable Transportation Choices: Shifting Routine Automobile Travel to Walking and Bicycling," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt06v2g6dh, University of California Transportation Center.
    9. Kenneth Joh & Sandip Chakrabarti & Marlon G. Boarnet & Ayoung Woo, 2015. "The Walking Renaissance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Walking Travel in the Greater Los Angeles Area, USA," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 7(7), pages 1-27, July.
    10. Hudyeron Rocha & Manuel Filgueiras & José Pedro Tavares & Sara Ferreira, 2023. "Public Transport Usage and Perceived Service Quality in a Large Metropolitan Area: The Case of Porto," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(7), pages 1-15, April.
    11. Lizhen Zhao & Zhenjiang Shen & Yanji Zhang & Fubin Sheng, 2019. "Study on the Impact of the Objective Characteristics and Subjective Perception of the Built Environment on Residents’ Physical Activities in Fuzhou, China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(1), pages 1-14, December.
    12. Yi Zhang & Xiaoguang Yang & Yuan Li & Qixing Liu & Chaoyang Li, 2014. "Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 6(6), pages 1-16, June.
    13. Nico Larco & Jean Stockard & Bethany Steiner & Amanda West, 2013. "Trips to Strips: Walking and Site Design in Suburban Multifamily Housing," Journal of Urban Design, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 281-303, May.
    14. Martín, Belén & Páez, Antonio, 2019. "Individual and geographic variations in the propensity to travel by active modes in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 103-113.
    15. Yehua Dennis Wei & Weiye Xiao & Ming Wen & Ran Wei, 2016. "Walkability, Land Use and Physical Activity," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(1), pages 1-16, January.
    16. Anfal Al-Ali & Praveen Maghelal & Khaled Alawadi, 2020. "Assessing Neighborhood Satisfaction and Social Capital in a Multi-Cultural Setting of an Abu Dhabi Neighborhood," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(8), pages 1-16, April.
    17. Losada-Rojas, Lisa L. & Pyrialakou, Dimitra & Waldorf, Brigitte S. & Banda, Jorge A. & Gkritza, Konstantina, 2022. "The effect of location on physical activity: Implications for active travel," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 104(C).
    18. Guimpert, Ignacio & Hurtubia, Ricardo, 2018. "Measuring, understanding and modelling the Walking Neighborhood as a function of built environment and socioeconomic variables," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 32-44.
    19. Jessica Cook & Mallika Bose & Deborah S. Main, 2014. "Design Quality Preferences for Walking in Youth in a Rural Setting," Journal of Urban Design, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(2), pages 171-188, March.
    20. Yi Zhang & Yuan Li & Qixing Liu & Chaoyang Li, 2014. "The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 6(2), pages 1-17, February.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:3:p:242-:d:65174. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.