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The Need to Amend IMO’s EEDI to Include a Threshold for Performance in Waves (Realistic Sea Conditions) to Achieve the Desired GHG Reductions


  • Elizabeth Lindstad

    (SINTEF Ocean AS, Marine Technology Center, 7465 Trondheim, Norway)

  • Henning Borgen

    (SINTEF Ocean AS, Marine Technology Center, 7465 Trondheim, Norway)

  • Gunnar S. Eskeland

    (Norwegian School of Economics (NHH), 5045 Bergen, Norway)

  • Christopher Paalson

    (Lloyds List Intelligence, Sven Källfelts gata 210, SE 42671 Gothenburg, Sweden)

  • Harilaos Psaraftis

    (Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark)

  • Osman Turan

    (Department of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Marine Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, 100 Montrose Street, Glasgow G40LZ, UK)


The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has established the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) as the most important policy measure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shipping. A vessel’s EEDI is based on sea trials at delivery, and vessels cannot exceed a threshold for emitted CO 2 per ton-mile, depending on vessel type and size. From other industries such as cars we have learnt that testing methods must reflect realistic operating conditions to deliver the desired emission reductions. Present sea-trial procedures for EEDI adjust to ‘calm water conditions’ only, as a comparative basis, despite calm sea being the exception at sea. We find that this adjustment procedure excessively rewards full bodied ‘bulky’ hulls which perform well in calm water conditions. In contrast, hull forms optimized with respect to performance in realistic sea-conditions are not rewarded with the current EEDI procedures. Our results indicate that without adjusting the testing cycle requirements to also include a threshold for performance in waves (real sea), the desired reductions will be short on targets and GHG emissions could potentially increase.

Suggested Citation

  • Elizabeth Lindstad & Henning Borgen & Gunnar S. Eskeland & Christopher Paalson & Harilaos Psaraftis & Osman Turan, 2019. "The Need to Amend IMO’s EEDI to Include a Threshold for Performance in Waves (Realistic Sea Conditions) to Achieve the Desired GHG Reductions," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(13), pages 1-17, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:13:p:3668-:d:245521

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. George Panagakos & Thiago de Sousa Pessôa & Nick Dessypris & Michael Bruhn Barfod & Harilaos N. Psaraftis, 2019. "Monitoring the Carbon Footprint of Dry Bulk Shipping in the EU: An Early Assessment of the MRV Regulation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(18), pages 1-19, September.
    4. Patrizia Serra & Gianfranco Fancello, 2020. "Towards the IMO’s GHG Goals: A Critical Overview of the Perspectives and Challenges of the Main Options for Decarbonizing International Shipping," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(8), pages 1-32, April.

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