IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jjrfmx/v14y2021i3p123-d517046.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Do IFRS Promote Transparency? Evidence from the Bankruptcy Prediction of Privately Held Swedish and Norwegian Companies

Author

Listed:
  • Akarsh Kainth

    (Department of International Business, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 6009 Ålesund, Norway)

  • Ranik Raaen Wahlstrøm

    (NTNU Business School, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway)

Abstract

The purpose of our paper is to investigate whether any differences between International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and local Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) impact the transparency of financial reporting of non-listed companies through bankruptcy prediction. This contributes to extant research that has focused on the effects of IFRS adoption in the context of listed companies. For our investigation, we used logistic regression, well-established accounting-based predictors, and a sample of financial statements from privately held Swedish companies using IFRS, and Norwegian companies using Norwegian GAAP. The results indicate that financial statements made under IFRS may be better suited for bankruptcy prediction than those made under Norwegian GAAP. Our findings suggest that the use of IFRS could aid in increasing the informativeness of financial reports by promoting transparency and prevent managers of firms facing insolvency from engaging in creative accounting practices. Our results should, however, be applied with caution, as they may be due to the differences in characteristics across firms that are not captured by our research design. We leave this issue open to future research.

Suggested Citation

  • Akarsh Kainth & Ranik Raaen Wahlstrøm, 2021. "Do IFRS Promote Transparency? Evidence from the Bankruptcy Prediction of Privately Held Swedish and Norwegian Companies," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(3), pages 1-15, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jjrfmx:v:14:y:2021:i:3:p:123-:d:517046
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1911-8074/14/3/123/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1911-8074/14/3/123/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Duffie, Darrell & Saita, Leandro & Wang, Ke, 2007. "Multi-period corporate default prediction with stochastic covariates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 635-665, March.
    2. John Y. Campbell & Jens Hilscher & Jan Szilagyi, 2008. "In Search of Distress Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2899-2939, December.
    3. Mary E. Barth & Wayne R. Landsman & Mark H. Lang, 2008. "International Accounting Standards and Accounting Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 467-498, June.
    4. Guermazi, Walid & Halioui, Khamoussi, 2020. "Do differences in national cultures affect cross-country conditional conservatism behavior under IFRS?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    5. De George, Emmanuel T. & Li, Xi & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2016. "A review of the IFRS adoption literature," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 67599, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    6. Deakin, Eb, 1972. "Discriminant Analysis Of Predictors Of Business Failure," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 167-179.
    7. Hans B. Christensen & Edward Lee & Martin Walker & Cheng Zeng, 2015. "Incentives or Standards: What Determines Accounting Quality Changes around IFRS Adoption?," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(1), pages 31-61, May.
    8. Duc Hong Vo & Binh Ninh Vo Pham & Chi Minh Ho & Michael McAleer, 2019. "Corporate Financial Distress of Industry Level Listings in Vietnam," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-17, September.
    9. Pepa Kraft & Wayne R. Landsman & Zilu Shan, 2021. "Effect of Mandatory IFRS Adoption on Accounting-Based Prediction Models for CDS Spreads," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(2), pages 223-250, March.
    10. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy: A Discriminant Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(1), pages 193-194, March.
    11. Najeb Masoud, 2017. "The effects of mandatory IFRS adoption on financial analysts’ forecast: Evidence from Jordan," Cogent Business & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 1290331-129, January.
    12. Günther, Nina & Gegenfurtner, Bernhard & Kaserer, Christoph & Achleitner, Ann-Kristin, 2009. "International financial reporting standards and earnings Quality: the myth of voluntary vs. mandatory adoption," CEFS Working Paper Series 2009-09, Technische Universität München (TUM), Center for Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies (CEFS).
    13. Micheal Forzeh Fossung & Lious Agbor Tabot Ntoung & Helena Maria Santos de Oliveira & Cláudia Maria Ferreira Pereira & Susana Adelina Moreira Carvalho Bastos & Liliana Marques Pimentel, 2020. "Transition to the Revised OHADA Law on Accounting and Financial Reporting: Corporate Perceptions of Costs and Benefits," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 13(8), pages 1-19, August.
    14. Jairaj Gupta & Andros Gregoriou & Tahera Ebrahimi, 2018. "Empirical comparison of hazard models in predicting SMEs failure," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 437-466, March.
    15. Ketz, Je, 1978. "Effect Of General Price-Level Adjustments On The Predictive Ability Of Financial Ratios," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16, pages 273-284.
    16. Joy, O. Maurice & Tollefson, John O., 1975. "On the Financial Applications of Discriminant Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(5), pages 723-739, December.
    17. Tian, Shaonan & Yu, Yan, 2017. "Financial ratios and bankruptcy predictions: An international evidence," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 510-526.
    18. Young-Soo Choi & Ken Peasnell & Joao Toniato, 2013. "Has the IASB Been Successful in Making Accounting Earnings More Useful for Prediction and Valuation? UK Evidence," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(7-8), pages 741-768, September.
    19. Altman, Edward I & Loris, Bettina, 1976. "A Financial Early Warning System for Over-the-Counter Broker-Dealers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1201-1217, September.
    20. Agarwal, Vineet & Taffler, Richard, 2008. "Comparing the performance of market-based and accounting-based bankruptcy prediction models," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1541-1551, August.
    21. Diamond, Douglas W & Verrecchia, Robert E, 1991. "Disclosure, Liquidity, and the Cost of Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1325-1359, September.
    22. Richard Lambert & Christian Leuz & Robert E. Verrecchia, 2007. "Accounting Information, Disclosure, and the Cost of Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 385-420, May.
    23. Keles, Dogan & Scelle, Jonathan & Paraschiv, Florentina & Fichtner, Wolf, 2016. "Extended forecast methods for day-ahead electricity spot prices applying artificial neural networks," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C), pages 218-230.
    24. Altman, Edward I. & Haldeman, Robert G. & Narayanan, P., 1977. "ZETATM analysis A new model to identify bankruptcy risk of corporations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 29-54, June.
    25. Christine A. Botosan & Marlene A. Plumlee, 2002. "A Re‐examination of Disclosure Level and the Expected Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 21-40, March.
    26. Jan Marton, 2017. "The Role and Current Status of IFRS in the Completion of National Accounting Rules – Evidence from Sweden," Accounting in Europe, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1-2), pages 207-216, May.
    27. Shyam-Sunder, Lakshmi & C. Myers, Stewart, 1999. "Testing static tradeoff against pecking order models of capital structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 219-244, February.
    28. Kerry Anne Bodle & Patti J. Cybinski & Reza Monem, 2016. "Effect of IFRS adoption on financial reporting quality," Accounting Research Journal, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 29(3), pages 292-312, September.
    29. Florou, Annita & Kosi, Urska & Pope, Peter F., 2017. "Are international accounting standards more credit relevant than domestic standards?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 68202, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    30. Dimitras, A. I. & Slowinski, R. & Susmaga, R. & Zopounidis, C., 1999. "Business failure prediction using rough sets," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 263-280, April.
    31. Oliveira, Lídia & Rodrigues, Lúcia Lima & Craig, Russell, 2010. "Intangible assets and value relevance: Evidence from the Portuguese stock exchange," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 241-252.
    32. Blum, M, 1974. "Failing Company Discriminant-Analysis," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(1), pages 1-25.
    33. Wilcox, Jw, 1973. "Prediction Of Business Failure Using Accounting Data - Comment," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11, pages 188-190.
    34. Altman, Edward I. & Marco, Giancarlo & Varetto, Franco, 1994. "Corporate distress diagnosis: Comparisons using linear discriminant analysis and neural networks (the Italian experience)," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 505-529, May.
    35. Abdul Aziz & David C. Emanuel & Gerald H. Lawson, 1988. "Bankruptcy Prediction ‐ An Investigation Of Cash Flow Based Models[1]," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5), pages 419-437, September.
    36. Edward I. Altman, 1968. "Financial Ratios, Discriminant Analysis And The Prediction Of Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(4), pages 589-609, September.
    37. Soo Young Kwon & Kyunga Na & Jongil Park, 2019. "The economic effects of IFRS adoption in Korea," Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 321-361, July.
    38. Ohlson, Ja, 1980. "Financial Ratios And The Probabilistic Prediction Of Bankruptcy," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 109-131.
    39. Zmijewski, Me, 1984. "Methodological Issues Related To The Estimation Of Financial Distress Prediction Models," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22, pages 59-82.
    40. Pettway, Richard H & Sinkey, Joseph F, Jr, 1980. "Establishing On-Site Bank Examination Priorities: An Early-Warning System Using Accounting and Market Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(1), pages 137-150, March.
    41. Eisenbeis, Robert A, 1977. "Pitfalls in the Application of Discriminant Analysis in Business, Finance, and Economics," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(3), pages 875-900, June.
    42. Wilcox, Jw, 1973. "Prediction Of Business Failure Using Accounting Data," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11, pages 163-179.
    43. Gjerde, Øystein & Knivsflå, Kjell Henry & Sættem, Frode, 2008. "The Value-Relevance of Adopting IFRS: Evidence from 145 NGAAP Restatements," Discussion Papers 2008/21, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    44. Gjerde, Øystein & Knivsflå, Kjell & Sættem, Frode, 2008. "The value-relevance of adopting IFRS: Evidence from 145 NGAAP restatements," Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 92-112.
    45. Hongping Tan & Shiheng Wang & Michael Welker, 2011. "Analyst Following and Forecast Accuracy After Mandated IFRS Adoptions," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(5), pages 1307-1357, December.
    46. Michela Cordazzo & Paola Rossi, 2020. "The influence of IFRS mandatory adoption on value relevance of intangible assets in Italy," Journal of Applied Accounting Research, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 21(3), pages 415-436, April.
    47. Meyer, Paul A & Pifer, Howard W, 1970. "Prediction of Bank Failures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(4), pages 853-868, September.
    48. Libby, R, 1975. "Accounting Ratios And Prediction Of Failure - Some Behavioral Evidence," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 150-161.
    49. Tian, Shaonan & Yu, Yan & Guo, Hui, 2015. "Variable selection and corporate bankruptcy forecasts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 89-100.
    50. Annita Florou & Urska Kosi & Peter F. Pope, 2017. "Are international accounting standards more credit relevant than domestic standards?," Accounting and Business Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(1), pages 1-29, January.
    51. Emmanuel T. De George & Xi Li & Lakshmanan Shivakumar, 2016. "A review of the IFRS adoption literature," Review of Accounting Studies, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 898-1004, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Damiano Montani & Daniele Gervasio & Andrea Pulcini & Camilla Marchesi, 2021. "Accounting Harmonisation through IAS/IFRS and Internationalisation: Evidence from FDIs and Cross-Border M&A," Accounting and Finance Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 10(3), pages 1-44, August.
    2. Ranik Raaen Wahlstr{o}m, 2022. "Financial statements of companies in Norway," Papers 2203.12842, arXiv.org, revised Nov 2023.
    3. Nora Štangová & Agneša Víghová, 2021. "Company liquidity as a reflection of receivables and payables management," Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 9(2), pages 238-254, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Şaban Çelik, 2013. "Micro Credit Risk Metrics: A Comprehensive Review," Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 233-272, October.
    2. Jayasekera, Ranadeva, 2018. "Prediction of company failure: Past, present and promising directions for the future," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 196-208.
    3. Jackson, Richard H.G. & Wood, Anthony, 2013. "The performance of insolvency prediction and credit risk models in the UK: A comparative study," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 183-202.
    4. Sebastian Klaudiusz Tomczak & Edward Radosiński, 2017. "The effectiveness of discriminant models based on the example of the manufacturing sector," Operations Research and Decisions, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Management, vol. 27(3), pages 81-97.
    5. Li, Chunyu & Lou, Chenxin & Luo, Dan & Xing, Kai, 2021. "Chinese corporate distress prediction using LASSO: The role of earnings management," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    6. Bhanu Pratap Singh & Alok Kumar Mishra, 2016. "Re-estimation and comparisons of alternative accounting based bankruptcy prediction models for Indian companies," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 1-28, December.
    7. Balcaen, Sofie & Ooghe, Hubert, 2006. "35 years of studies on business failure: an overview of the classic statistical methodologies and their related problems," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 63-93.
    8. fernández, María t. Tascón & gutiérrez, Francisco J. Castaño, 2012. "Variables y Modelos Para La Identificación y Predicción Del Fracaso Empresarial: Revisión de La Investigación Empírica Reciente," Revista de Contabilidad - Spanish Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 7-58.
    9. Layla Khoja & Maxwell Chipulu & Ranadeva Jayasekera, 2016. "Analysing corporate insolvency in the Gulf Cooperation Council using logistic regression and multidimensional scaling," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 483-518, April.
    10. Dimitras, A. I. & Zanakis, S. H. & Zopounidis, C., 1996. "A survey of business failures with an emphasis on prediction methods and industrial applications," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 90(3), pages 487-513, May.
    11. Evangelos C. Charalambakis, 2015. "On the Prediction of Corporate Financial Distress in the Light of the Financial Crisis: Empirical Evidence from Greek Listed Firms," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 407-428, November.
    12. du Jardin, Philippe, 2012. "The influence of variable selection methods on the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction models," MPRA Paper 44383, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Petr Jakubík & Petr Teplý, 2011. "The JT Index as an Indicator of Financial Stability of Corporate Sector," Prague Economic Papers, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2011(2), pages 157-176.
    14. Kerstin Lopatta & Mario Albert Gloger & Reemda Jaeschke, 2017. "Can Language Predict Bankruptcy? The Explanatory Power of Tone in 10‐K Filings," Accounting Perspectives, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 16(4), pages 315-343, December.
    15. Serrano-Cinca, Carlos & Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña & Bernate-Valbuena, Martha, 2019. "The use of accounting anomalies indicators to predict business failure," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 353-375.
    16. Mohammad Mahdi Mousavi & Jamal Ouenniche & Kaoru Tone, 2023. "A dynamic performance evaluation of distress prediction models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 42(4), pages 756-784, July.
    17. Ali DERAN & Omer ISKENDEROGLU & Incilay ERDURU, 2014. "Regional Differences and Financial Ratios: A Comparative Approach on Companies of ISE City Indexes," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 4(4), pages 946-955.
    18. Fayçal Mraihi & Inane Kanzari & Mohamed Tahar Rajhi, 2015. "Development of a Prediction Model of Failure in Tunisian Companies: Comparison between Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines," International Journal of Empirical Finance, Research Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 4(3), pages 184-205.
    19. García-Gallego, Ana & Mures-Quintana, María-Jesús, 2013. "La muestra de empresas en los modelos de predicción del fracaso: influencia en los resultados de clasificación || The Sample of Firms in Business Failure Prediction Models: Influence on Classification," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 15(1), pages 133-150, June.
    20. Ha-Thu Nguyen, 2014. "Default Predictors in Credit Scoring - Evidence from France’s Retail Banking Institution," EconomiX Working Papers 2014-26, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jjrfmx:v:14:y:2021:i:3:p:123-:d:517046. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.