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Credible Granger-Causality Inference with Modest Sample Lengths: A Cross-Sample Validation Approach

Author

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  • Richard A. Ashley

    (Department of Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA)

  • Kwok Ping Tsang

    (Department of Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA)

Abstract

Credible Granger-causality analysis appears to require post-sample inference, as it is well-known that in-sample fit can be a poor guide to actual forecasting effectiveness. However, post-sample model testing requires an often-consequential a priori partitioning of the data into an “in-sample” period – purportedly utilized only for model specification/estimation – and a “post-sample” period, purportedly utilized (only at the end of the analysis) for model validation/testing purposes. This partitioning is usually infeasible, however, with samples of modest length – e.g., T ≤ 150 – as is common in both quarterly data sets and/or in monthly data sets where institutional arrangements vary over time, simply because there is in such cases insufficient data available to credibly accomplish both purposes separately. A cross-sample validation (CSV) testing procedure is proposed below which both eliminates the aforementioned a priori partitioning and which also substantially ameliorates this power versus credibility predicament – preserving most of the power of in-sample testing (by utilizing all of the sample data in the test), while also retaining most of the credibility of post-sample testing (by always basing model forecasts on data not utilized in estimating that particular model’s coefficients). Simulations show that the price paid, in terms of power relative to the in-sample Granger-causality F test, is manageable. An illustrative application is given, to a re-analysis of the Engel andWest [1] study of the causal relationship between macroeconomic fundamentals and the exchange rate; several of their conclusions are changed by our analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard A. Ashley & Kwok Ping Tsang, 2014. "Credible Granger-Causality Inference with Modest Sample Lengths: A Cross-Sample Validation Approach," Econometrics, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(1), pages 1-20, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jecnmx:v:2:y:2014:i:1:p:72-91:d:34391
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    9. Jeffrey S. Racine & Christopher F. Parmeter, 2012. "Data-Driven Model Evaluation: A Test for Revealed Performance," Department of Economics Working Papers 2012-13, McMaster University.
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    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. April Reading List
      by Dave Giles in Econometrics Beat: Dave Giles' Blog on 2014-04-01 20:43:00

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    2. Kyriazakou, Eleni & Panagiotidis, Theodore, 2017. "Causality analysis of the Canadian city house price indices: A cross-sample validation approach," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 16(C), pages 42-52.
    3. Harvey, David I. & Leybourne, Stephen J. & Whitehouse, Emily J., 2017. "Forecast evaluation tests and negative long-run variance estimates in small samples," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 833-847.
    4. Ye, Haichun & Ashley, Richard & Guerard, John, 2015. "Comparing the effectiveness of traditional vs. mechanized identification methods in post-sample forecasting for a macroeconomic Granger causality analysis," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 488-500.
    5. Xiaojie Xu, 2018. "Cointegration and price discovery in US corn cash and futures markets," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 1889-1923, December.
    6. Xiaojie Xu, 2019. "Price dynamics in corn cash and futures markets: cointegration, causality, and forecasting through a rolling window approach," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 33(2), pages 155-181, June.

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