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Cross-cultural training and expatriate adjustment: A study of western expatriates in Nigeria


  • Okpara, John O.
  • Kabongo, Jean D.


Multinational corporations (MNCs) are having difficulty retaining expatriates for their global operations. It is estimated that 10-80% of expatriates sent on foreign assignments return home prematurely. One of the reasons for expatriates' failure has been cited as the inability of these managers and/or their spouses to adapt to the host-country's culture. As a result, cross-culture training programs provided to employees and their families by MNCs have become crucially important for successful international operations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cross-cultural training (CCT) on different facets of expatriate managers' adjustment in Nigeria. A sample of 226 multinational western expatriate managers working in Nigeria was surveyed for this study. Results show that different types of cross-cultural training affect expatriates' adjustment. Implications for practice are identified and discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Okpara, John O. & Kabongo, Jean D., 2011. "Cross-cultural training and expatriate adjustment: A study of western expatriates in Nigeria," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 22-30, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:worbus:v:46:y:2011:i:1:p:22-30

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Margaret A Shaffer & David A Harrison & K Matthew Gilley, 1999. "Dimensions, Determinants, and Differences in the Expatriate Adjustment Process," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(3), pages 557-581, September.
    2. J Stewart Black, 1988. "Work Role Transitions: A Study of American Expatriate Managers in Japan," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(2), pages 277-294, June.
    3. Ken Kamoche, 1996. "Strategic Human Resource Management Within A Resource-Capability View Of The Firm," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(2), pages 213-233, March.
    4. J Stewart Black & Hal B Gregersen & Mark E Mendenhall, 1992. "Toward a Theoretical Framework of Repatriation Adjustment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(4), pages 737-760, December.
    5. Kim, Kwanghyun & Slocum Jr., John W., 2008. "Individual differences and expatriate assignment effectiveness: The case of U.S.-based Korean expatriates," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 109-126, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Caligiuri, Paula & Bonache, Jaime, 2016. "Evolving and enduring challenges in global mobility," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 127-141.
    2. repec:hur:ijarbs:v:7:y:2017:i:8:p:371-387 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Koveshnikov, Alexei & Wechtler, Heidi & Dejoux, Cecile, 2014. "Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates: The role of emotional intelligence and gender," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 362-371.


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