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From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy: Gender Bias over Time among Children in Four Countries

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  • Dercon, Stefan
  • Singh, Abhijeet

Abstract

We use data on children at ages 8, 12, and 15 from Young Lives, a cohort study of 12,000 children across Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru, and Vietnam to document the presence of a gender gap across indicators of nutrition, education, aspirations, subjective well-being, and psychosocial competencies. We find considerable heterogeneity across countries, ages, and indicators in the existence and direction of gender gaps. Second, we find evidence of an “institutionalized” gender bias against girls in education in India and, to an extent, Ethiopia. Poorer non-cognitive skills could be a channel for continuing gender bias through poorer labor market outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Dercon, Stefan & Singh, Abhijeet, 2013. "From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy: Gender Bias over Time among Children in Four Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 31-50.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:45:y:2013:i:c:p:31-50
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.12.001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Pasquier-Doumer, Laure & Risso Brandon, Fiorella, 2015. "Aspiration Failure: A Poverty Trap for Indigenous Children in Peru?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 208-223.
    2. Gabriela Guerrero & Juan Leon & Kirrily Pells & Martin Woodhead, 2014. "Changing Children’s Lives Risks and Opportunities (Cambiando la vida de los niños)," Documentos de Trabajo (Niños del Milenio-GRADE) ninosmcambiandolavida, Niños del Milenio (Young Lives).
    3. Mekonnen, Daniel & Gerber, Nicolas, 2015. "The Effect of Aspirations on Agricultural Innovations in Rural Ethiopia," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211680, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Igei, Kengo & Yuki, Takako, 2015. "Determinants of School Enrollment of Girls in Rural Yemen: Parental Aspirations and Attitudes toward Girls’ Education," Working Papers 107, JICA Research Institute.
    5. Rodriguez Takeuchi Laura, 2015. "Intra-Household Inequalities in Child Rights and Well-Being: A Barrier to Progress?," WIDER Working Paper Series 012, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Aregawi G. Gebremariam & Elisabetta Lodigiani & Giacomo Pasini, 2017. "The impact of Ethiopian Productive Safety-net Program on children’s educational aspirations," Working Papers 2017:26, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
    7. Eline Bos, 2016. "Leading by Example: What is the effect on educational outcomes of exposing girls, in addition to parents, to female role models?," CSAE Working Paper Series 2016-37, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    8. Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew, 2016. "Social Interactions and Aspirations Formation in Rural Ethiopia," Discussion Papers 250150, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    9. Rodríguez, Laura, 2016. "Intrahousehold Inequalities in Child Rights and Well-Being. A Barrier to Progress?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 111-134.
    10. Parikh, Priti & Fu, Kun & Parikh, Himanshu & McRobie, Allan & George, Gerard, 2015. "Infrastructure Provision, Gender, and Poverty in Indian Slums," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 468-486.
    11. Echávarri, Rebeca & Husillos, Javier, 2016. "The Missing Link Between Parents’ Preferences and Daughters’ Survival: The Moderator Effect of Societal Discrimination," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 372-385.
    12. Wuepper, David & Sauer, Johannes, 2016. "Explaining the performance of contract farming in Ghana: The role of self-efficacy and social capital," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 11-27.
    13. Eric B. Schneider, 2016. "Health, Gender and the Household: Children’s Growth in the Marcella Street Home, Boston, MA, and the Ashford School, London, UK," Research in Economic History,in: Research in Economic History, volume 32, pages 277-361 Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    14. Bühler, Dorothee & Hartje, Rebecca & Ulrike Grote, 2017. "Can household food security predict individual undernutrition? Evidence from Cambodia and Lao PDR," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-594, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    15. Dalton, Patricio & Rüschenpöhler, Julius & Zia, Bilal, 2018. "Determinants and Dynamics of Business Aspirations : Evidence from Small-scale Entrepreneurs in an Emerging Market," Discussion Paper 2018-009, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    16. Dendir, Seife, 2014. "Children's cognitive ability, schooling and work: Evidence from Ethiopia," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 22-36.

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    Keywords

    gender; Ethiopia; India; Peru; Vietnam; cohort study;

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