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An Assessment of the Young Lives Sampling Approach in Peru


  • Escobal, Javier
  • Flores, Eva


Young Lives is a longitudinal research project investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty. The study is tracking the development of 12,000 children in Ethiopia, Peru, India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam through qualitative and quantitative research over a 15-year period. Since 2002, the study has been following two cohorts in each study country. The younger cohort consists of 2,000 children per study country aged between 6 and 18 months in 2002. The older cohort consists of 1,000 children per country aged between 7.5 and 8.5 in 2002. The key objectives of Young Lives are: (i) to improve the understanding of causes and consequences of childhood poverty, (ii) to examine how policies affect children's well-being and (iii) to inform the development and implementation of future policies and practices that will reduce childhood poverty. In Peru the Young Lives team used multi-stage, cluster-stratified, random sampling to select the two cohorts of children. This methodology, unlike the one applied in the other Young Lives countries, randomized households within a site as well as sentinel site locations. To ensure the sustainability of the study, and for resurveying purposes, a number of well-defined sites were chosen. These were selected with a pro-poor bias, ensuring that randomly selected clusters of equal population excluded districts located in the top five per cent of the poverty map developed in 2000 by the Fondo Nacional de Cooperacion para el Desar rollo (FONCODES, the National Fund for Development and Social Compensation). This paper assesses the sampling methodology by comparing the Young Lives sample with larger, nationally representative samples. The Peru team sought to: - analyse how the Young Lives children and households compare with other children in Peru in terms of their living standards and other characteristics - examine whether this may affect inferences between the data - establish to what extent the Young Lives sample is a relatively poorer or richer sub-population in Peru - determine whether different levels of living standards are represented within the data set.

Suggested Citation

  • Escobal, Javier & Flores, Eva, 2008. "An Assessment of the Young Lives Sampling Approach in Peru," MPRA Paper 56483, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:56483

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jose Rodriguez & Silvana Vargas, 2009. "Trabajo infantil en el Peru. Magnitud y perfiles vulnerables. Informe Nacional 2007-2008," Libros no PUCP / Books other publishers, Otras editoriales / Other publishers, number oit2009, February.
    2. Escobal, Javier & Ponce, Carmen, 2007. "Trade Liberalisation and Child Welfare: Assessing the Impact of a Free Trade Agreement Between Peru and the USA," MPRA Paper 56477, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Escobal, Javier & Flores, Eva, 2008. "An Assessment of the Young Lives Sampling Approach in Peru," MPRA Paper 56483, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pasquier-Doumer, Laure & Risso Brandon, Fiorella, 2015. "Aspiration Failure: A Poverty Trap for Indigenous Children in Peru?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 208-223.
    2. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12016 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Krause, Brooke Laura, 2013. "Childhood Malnutrition and Educational Attainment: An Analysis using Oxford's Young Lives Longitudinal Study in Peru," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150598, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    4. Ingo Outes-Leon & Catherine Porter & Alan Sanchez, 2011. "Early Nutrition and Cognition in Peru," Research Department Publications 4743, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    5. Abhijeet Singh, 2014. "Emergence and evolution of learning gaps across countries: Linked panel evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam," CSAE Working Paper Series 2014-28, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    6. Escobal, Javier, 2012. "Multidimensional Poverty and Inequality of Opportunity in Peru: Taking Advantage of the Longitudinal Dimension of Young Lives," MPRA Paper 56461, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Cueto, Santiago & Escobal, Javier & Penny, Mary & Ames, Patricia, 2011. "Tracking Disparities: Who Gets Left Behind? Initial Findings from Peru Round 3 Survey," MPRA Paper 56482, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Marta Favara & Alan Sanchez, 2017. "Psychosocial competencies and risky behaviours in Peru," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 6(1), pages 1-40, December.
    9. Pawlowski, Tim & Schüttoff, Ute & Downward, Paul & Lechner, Michael, 2014. "Children’s skill formation in less developed countries – The impact of sports participation," Economics Working Paper Series 1412, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    10. Krause, Brooke Laura, 2012. "Childhood Malnutrition and Educational Attainment: An Analysis using Oxford’s Young Lives Longitudinal Study in Peru," Master's Theses 146072, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
    11. Escobal, Javier & Benites, Sara, 2012. "Algunos impactos del programa JUNTOS en el bienestar de los niños: Evidencia basada en el estudio Niños del Milenio
      [Impacts of the Conditional Cash Transfer programme JUNTOS for children in Peru]
      ," MPRA Paper 56480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Cristina Cirillo & Giorgia Giovannetti, 2018. "Do Cash Transfers Trigger Investment? Evidence for Peru," Development Working Papers 433, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 29 Jan 2018.
    13. Dercon, Stefan & Singh, Abhijeet, 2013. "From Nutrition to Aspirations and Self-Efficacy: Gender Bias over Time among Children in Four Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 31-50.
    14. Santiago Cueto & Javier Escobal & Javier Escobal & Patricia Ames & Mary Penny, 2012. "¿Quién se queda atrás?: resultados iniciales del estudio Niños del Milenio: tercera ronda de encuestas en el Perú," Documentos de Trabajo (Niños del Milenio-GRADE) ninosm3r, Niños del Milenio (Young Lives).
    15. Favara, Marta & Lavado, Pablo & Sanchez, Alan, 2016. "Understanding Teenage Fertility, Cohabitation, and Marriage: The Case of Peru," IZA Discussion Papers 10270, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    16. Hynsjö, Disa & Damon, Amy, 2016. "Bilingual education in Peru: Evidence on how Quechua-medium education affects indigenous children's academic achievement," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 116-132.
    17. Outes, Ingo & Porter, Catherine & Sanchez, Alan & Escobal, Javier, 2011. "Early Nutrition and Cognition in Peru: A Within-Sibling Investigation," Working Papers 2011-017, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    18. Gaentzsch, Anja, 2017. "Do conditional cash transfers (CCT) raise educational attainment? A case study of Juntos in Peru," Discussion Papers 2017/9, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    19. Orazio Attanasio & Costas Meghir & Emily Nix & Francesca Salvati, 2017. "Human Capital Growth and Poverty: Evidence from Ethiopia and Peru," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 25, pages 234-259, April.
    20. Novella, Rafael, 2013. "Parental education, gender preferences and child nutritional status: evidence from four developing countries," ISER Working Paper Series 2013-06, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    21. Kirrily Pells & Maria José Ogando Portela & Patricia Espinoza Revollo & UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, 2016. "Experiences of Peer Bullying among Adolescents and Associated Effects on Young Adult Outcomes: Longitudinal Evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Viet Nam," Papers indipa863, Innocenti Discussion Papers.

    More about this item


    Peru Child Well-being; Survey Sampling;

    JEL classification:

    • C42 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Survey Methods
    • C83 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods
    • I3 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty
    • J0 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General


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