Public transport demand in Freiburg: why did patronage double in a decade?
The German city of Freiburg has experienced an enormous and unprecedented rise in the demand for local public transport since the early 1980s. This study investigates the causes of this dramatic increase in the popularity of both tram and bus use. Although traffic restraint measures and improvements in the quality of the public transit service are significant factors, the main explanation lies in the introduction of low cost 'environmental' travel cards with the key characteristics of transferability across friends and family and wide regional validity across operators. These season tickets considerably augmented transit demand without seriously exacerbating the operating deficit.
Volume (Year): 5 (1998)
Issue (Month): 3 (June)
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References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- FitzRoy, Felix & Smith, Ian, 1999.
"Season Tickets and the Demand for Public Transport,"
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 219-238.
- Felix R FitzRoy & Ian Smith, 1998. "Season Tickets and the Demand for Public Transport," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9802, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-475, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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