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Public transport demand in Freiburg: why did patronage double in a decade?

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  • FitzRoy, Felix
  • Smith, Ian

Abstract

The German city of Freiburg has experienced an enormous and unprecedented rise in the demand for local public transport since the early 1980s. This study investigates the causes of this dramatic increase in the popularity of both tram and bus use. Although traffic restraint measures and improvements in the quality of the public transit service are significant factors, the main explanation lies in the introduction of low cost 'environmental' travel cards with the key characteristics of transferability across friends and family and wide regional validity across operators. These season tickets considerably augmented transit demand without seriously exacerbating the operating deficit.

Suggested Citation

  • FitzRoy, Felix & Smith, Ian, 1998. "Public transport demand in Freiburg: why did patronage double in a decade?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 163-173, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:5:y:1998:i:3:p:163-173
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Halvorsen, Robert & Palmquist, Raymond, 1980. "The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 474-475, June.
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    1. Stradling, Stephen & Carreno, Michael & Rye, Tom & Noble, Allyson, 2007. "Passenger perceptions and the ideal urban bus journey experience," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 283-292, July.
    2. Lovelace, R. & Beck, S.B.M. & Watson, M. & Wild, A., 2011. "Assessing the energy implications of replacing car trips with bicycle trips in Sheffield, UK," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2075-2087, April.
    3. Currie, Graham & Delbosc, Alexa, 2011. "Understanding bus rapid transit route ridership drivers: An empirical study of Australian BRT systems," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 755-764, September.
    4. Redman, Lauren & Friman, Margareta & Gärling, Tommy & Hartig, Terry, 2013. "Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 119-127.
    5. Sharaby, Nir & Shiftan, Yoram, 2012. "The impact of fare integration on travel behavior and transit ridership," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 63-70.
    6. G. Currie & A. Ahern & A. Delbosc, 2011. "Exploring the drivers of light rail ridership: an empirical route level analysis of selected Australian, North American and European systems," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 545-560, May.
    7. Parkhurst, G. & Dudley, G., 2004. "Bussing between hegemonies: the dominant 'frame' in Oxford's transport policies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 1-16, January.
    8. Armin Schmutzler, 2011. "Local Transportation Policy and the Environment," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(3), pages 511-535, March.
    9. Muhammad Ibrahim, 2003. "Car ownership and attitudes towards transport modes for shopping purposes in Singapore," Transportation, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 435-457, November.
    10. Anna Matas, 2003. "Demand and revenue implications of an integrated public transport policy. The case of," Working Papers wpdea0304, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    11. Dahlgren, Joy & Khattak, Asad & McDonough, Patrick & Banerjee, Ipsita & Orrick, Phyllis & Sharafsaleh, Ashkan, 2004. "ITS Decision Enhancements: Developing Case-Based Reasoning and Expert Systems and Incorporating New Material," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt9242q08h, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    12. Lane, Bradley W., 2008. "Significant characteristics of the urban rail renaissance in the United States: A discriminant analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 279-295, February.
    13. Jara-Díaz, Sergio & Cruz, Diego & Casanova, César, 2016. "Optimal pricing for travelcards under income and car ownership inequities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 470-482.
    14. Poudenx, Pascal, 2008. "The effect of transportation policies on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission from urban passenger transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 901-909, July.
    15. Currie, Graham & Delbosc, Alexa, 2014. "Assessing Bus Rapid Transit system performance in Australasia," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 142-151.
    16. Voss, Achim, 2015. "Collective public-transport tickets and anticipated majority choice: A model of student tickets," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 263-276.
    17. Simone Salotti & Letizia Montinari & Antonio F. Amores & José Manuel Rueda-Cantuche, 2015. "Total expenditure elasticity of non-durable consumption of European households," JRC Working Papers JRC94405, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    18. Marletto, Gerardo & Ortolan, Chiara, 2017. "Testing the integration of political discourses into the socio-technical map of urban mobility," Working Papers 17_2, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica.
    19. repec:eee:retrec:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:26-35 is not listed on IDEAS

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