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Optimizing bus stop spacing in urban areas


  • Ibeas, Ángel
  • dell'Olio, Luigi
  • Alonso, Borja
  • Sainz, Olivia


This work develops a bi-level optimization model for locating bus stops to minimize the social cost of the overall transport system. The work takes into account possible changes in demand due to different bus stop locations considering congestion on buses, interaction with private traffic, operational variables (fleet, frequency, operator budgets), and the socio-demographic characteristics of each zone in the urban area. Finally, the technique is applied to a real case and a sensitivity analysis is performed to check how the different variables analysed influence the solution provided by the model.

Suggested Citation

  • Ibeas, Ángel & dell'Olio, Luigi & Alonso, Borja & Sainz, Olivia, 2010. "Optimizing bus stop spacing in urban areas," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 446-458, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transe:v:46:y:2010:i:3:p:446-458

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    Cited by:

    1. Gibson, Jaime & Munizaga, Marcela A. & Schneider, Camila & Tirachini, Alejandro, 2016. "Estimating the bus user time benefits of implementing a median busway: Methodology and case study," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 72-82.
    2. Tirachini, Alejandro, 2014. "The economics and engineering of bus stops: Spacing, design and congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 37-57.
    3. Hiroshi Shimamoto & Naoki Murayama & Akimasa Fujiwara & Junyi Zhang, 2010. "Evaluation of an existing bus network using a transit network optimisation model: a case study of the Hiroshima City Bus network," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(5), pages 801-823, September.
    4. Luigi dell’Olio & Angel Ibeas & Francisco Ruisánchez, 2012. "Optimizing bus-size and headway in transit networks," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 449-464, March.
    5. Goerigk, Marc & Deghdak, Kaouthar & Heßler, Philipp, 2014. "A comprehensive evacuation planning model and genetic solution algorithm," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 82-97.
    6. Chen, Jingxu & Liu, Zhiyuan & Zhu, Senlai & Wang, Wei, 2015. "Design of limited-stop bus service with capacity constraint and stochastic travel time," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 1-15.
    7. Ceder, Avishai (Avi) & Butcher, Matthew & Wang, Lingli, 2015. "Optimization of bus stop placement for routes on uneven topography," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 40-61.


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