IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Synopsis of users’ behaviour of a carsharing program: A case study in Toronto


  • Costain, Cindy
  • Ardron, Carolyn
  • Habib, Khandker Nurul


The paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the behaviour of carsharing members through the analysis of administrative datasets of a dominant carsharing program in Toronto. The key objective of the investigation is to enhance our understanding on carsharing behaviour in the City of Toronto. Unlike other studies on carsharing, this paper intends to build a comprehensive understanding of the multiple dimensions of users’ behaviour including attitude towards environment, attitude towards safety, frequency of usage, membership duration, vehicle type choice and monthly demand, in terms of total vehicle-kilometre and vehicle-hour travel. The paper uses both descriptive and econometric approaches for in-depth investigations. One of the key contributions of the paper is linking carsharing with carbon offsetting. Investigations reveal that carsharing members are in general environmentally conscious people and are willing to pay for carbon offsetting if given an option. However, having the carbon offsetting option also encouraged a higher amount of driving per month. Results show that carsharing is most often used for off-peak period travel or on weekends, when transit service is poor and traffic congestion is low. The majority of trips made by carsharing members are short-distance trips. It is clear that carsharing is providing a segment of the population with enhanced accessibility and mobility and thus playing an important role in providing a seamless, integrated transportation service in the City of Toronto.

Suggested Citation

  • Costain, Cindy & Ardron, Carolyn & Habib, Khandker Nurul, 2012. "Synopsis of users’ behaviour of a carsharing program: A case study in Toronto," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 421-434.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:46:y:2012:i:3:p:421-434
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tra.2011.11.005

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kiefer, Nicholas M, 1988. "Economic Duration Data and Hazard Functions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(2), pages 646-679, June.
    2. Train,Kenneth E., 2009. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521766555.
    3. Steininger, Karl & Vogl, Caroline & Zettl, Ralph, 1996. "Car-sharing organizations : The size of the market segment and revealed change in mobility behavior," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 177-185, October.
    4. Firnkorn, Jörg & Müller, Martin, 2011. "What will be the environmental effects of new free-floating car-sharing systems? The case of car2go in Ulm," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(8), pages 1519-1528, June.
    5. Martin, Elliot & Shaheen, Susan Alison & Lidicker, Jeffrey, 2010. "Carsharing’S Impact On Household Vehicle Holdings: Results From A North American Shared-Use Vehicle Survey," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt0850h6r5, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    6. Huwer, Ulrike, 2004. "Public transport and csar-sharing--benefits and effects of combined services," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 77-87, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Nourinejad, Mehdi & Zhu, Sirui & Bahrami, Sina & Roorda, Matthew J., 2015. "Vehicle relocation and staff rebalancing in one-way carsharing systems," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 98-113.
    2. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:362-376 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Jorge, Diana & Molnar, Goran & de Almeida Correia, Gonçalo Homem, 2015. "Trip pricing of one-way station-based carsharing networks with zone and time of day price variations," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 461-482.
    4. Nourinejad, Mehdi & Roorda, Matthew J., 2014. "A dynamic carsharing decision support system," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 36-50.
    5. Firnkorn, Jörg, 2012. "Triangulation of two methods measuring the impacts of a free-floating carsharing system in Germany," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(10), pages 1654-1672.
    6. Wagner, Sebastian & Brandt, Tobias & Neumann, Dirk, 2016. "In free float: Developing Business Analytics support for carsharing providers," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 59(PA), pages 4-14.
    7. Schaefers, Tobias, 2013. "Exploring carsharing usage motives: A hierarchical means-end chain analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 69-77.
    8. Matthew Clark & Kate Gifford & Jillian Anable & Scott Le Vine, 2015. "Business-to-business carsharing: evidence from Britain of factors associated with employer-based carsharing membership and its impacts," Transportation, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 471-495, May.
    9. de Luca, Stefano & Di Pace, Roberta, 2015. "Modelling users’ behaviour in inter-urban carsharing program: A stated preference approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 59-76.
    10. repec:eee:trapol:v:57:y:2017:i:c:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:eee:tefoso:v:125:y:2017:i:c:p:38-47 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Daniel Newman & Peter Wells & Ceri Donovan & Paul Nieuwenhuis & Huw Davies, 2014. "Urban, sub-urban or rural: where is the best place for electric vehicles?," International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(3/4), pages 306-323.
    13. Ganjar Alfian & Jongtae Rhee & Yong-Shin Kang & Byungun Yoon, 2015. "Performance Comparison of Reservation Based and Instant Access One-Way Car Sharing Service through Discrete Event Simulation," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(9), pages 1-25, September.
    14. Kim, Jinhee & Rasouli, Soora & Timmermans, Harry, 2017. "Satisfaction and uncertainty in car-sharing decisions: An integration of hybrid choice and random regret-based models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 13-33.
    15. Spickermann, Alexander & Grienitz, Volker & von der Gracht, Heiko A., 2014. "Heading towards a multimodal city of the future?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 201-221.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:46:y:2012:i:3:p:421-434. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.