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Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: The role of openness and innovativeness

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  • Zobel, Ann-Kristin
  • Lokshin, Boris
  • Hagedoorn, John

Abstract

This paper analyses how firms’ degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation mechanisms. Both external search breadth and depth are positively associated with firms’ use of informal appropriation mechanisms, while only external search breadth is positively associated with formal appropriation mechanisms. Firms’ degree of radical (incremental) innovation orientation is negatively (positively) associated with their use of formal appropriation mechanisms. Analysis of the joint impact of openness and innovativeness, suggests that for radical innovators it is external search breadth (rather than depth) that has a positive association with the use of informal appropriation mechanisms. In contrast, for radical innovators external search depth (rather than breadth) is associated with the use of formal appropriation mechanisms. For incremental innovators, external search breadth (rather than depth) is associated with the use of both formal and informal appropriation mechanisms.

Suggested Citation

  • Zobel, Ann-Kristin & Lokshin, Boris & Hagedoorn, John, 2017. "Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: The role of openness and innovativeness," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 44-54.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:techno:v:59:y:2017:i:c:p:44-54
    DOI: 10.1016/j.technovation.2016.10.001
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    1. repec:eee:techno:v:66-67:y:2017:i::p:28-42 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:tefoso:v:120:y:2017:i:c:p:252-260 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Appropriation mechanisms; Formal appropriation; Informal appropriation; External search openness; Incremental innovators; Radical innovators;

    JEL classification:

    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • K11 - Law and Economics - - Basic Areas of Law - - - Property Law

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