Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: Women's education, child immunization, and the importance of context in rural India
The argument that maternal education is critical for child health is commonplace in academic and policy discourse, although significant facets of the relationship remain empirically and theoretically challenged. While individual-level analyses consistently suggest that maternal education enhances child health outcomes, another body of literature argues that the observed causality at the individual-level may, in fact, be spurious. This study contributes to the debate by examining the contextual effects of women's education on children's immunization in rural districts of India. Multilevel analyses of data from the 1994 Human Development Profile Index and the 1991 district-level Indian Census demonstrate that a positive and significant relationship exists between the proportion of literate females in a district and a child's complete immunization status within that district, above and beyond the child's own mother's education as well as district-level socioeconomic development and healthcare amenities. However, results also indicate that the effect of maternal education cannot be downplayed. Thus, increasing women's literacy at the community level, in addition to mother's access to higher education--such as matriculation and beyond--at the individual-level, emerge as effective developmental tools.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 61 (2005)
Issue (Month): 5 (September)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/supportfaq.cws_home/regional|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Adams, Alayne M. & Madhavan, Sangeetha & Simon, Dominique, 2002. "Women's social networks and child survival in Mali," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 165-178, January.
- Bonu, Sekhar & Rani, Manju & Baker, Timothy D., 2003. "The impact of the national polio immunization campaign on levels and equity in immunization coverage: evidence from rural North India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(10), pages 1807-1819, November.
- Rohini Pande, 2003. "Selective gender differences in childhood nutrition and immunization in rural India: The role of siblings," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 40(3), pages 395-418, August.
- Narayan Sastry, 1996. "Community characteristics, individual and household attributes, and child survival in brazil," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(2), pages 211-229, May.
- Borooah, Vani K., 2004.
"Gender bias among children in India in their diet and immunisation against disease,"
Social Science & Medicine,
Elsevier, vol. 58(9), pages 1719-1731, May.
- Borooah, Vani, 2004. "Gender Bias Among Children in India in their Diet and Immunisation Against Disease," MPRA Paper 19590, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Duncan, Craig & Jones, Kelvyn & Moon, Graham, 1996. "Health-related behaviour in context: A multilevel modelling approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 817-830, March.
- Sonalde Desai & Soumya Alva, 1998. "Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 35(1), pages 71-81, February.
- Subramanian, S. V., 2004. "The relevance of multilevel statistical methods for identifying causal neighborhood effects," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 58(10), pages 1961-1967, May.
- Jean Drèze & Mamta Murthi, 2001. "Fertility, Education, and Development: Evidence from India," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(1), pages 33-63.
- Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo & Reyes, Hortensia & Pego, Ulises & Tomé, Patricia & Ceja, Karla & Flores, Sergio & Gutiérrez, Gonzalo, 1999. "Immunization promotion activities: are they effective in encouraging mothers to immunize their children?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 921-932, October.
- Pande, Rohini P. & Yazbeck, Abdo S., 2003. "What's in a country average? Wealth, gender, and regional inequalities in immunization in India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(11), pages 2075-2088, December.
- Langsten, Ray & Hill, Kenneth, 1998. "The accuracy of mothers' reports of child vaccination: evidence from rural Egypt," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1205-1212, May.
- Das, Jishnu & Das, Saumya, 2003. "Trust, learning, and vaccination: a case study of a North Indian village," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 97-112, July.
- Streefland, Pieter & Chowdhury, A. M. R. & Ramos-Jimenez, Pilar, 1999. "Patterns of vaccination acceptance," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 49(12), pages 1705-1716, December. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:61:y:2005:i:5:p:989-1000. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.