IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Comparative impacts of wind and photovoltaic generation on energy storage for small islanded electricity systems


  • Mason, I.G.


This paper addresses the annual energy storage requirements of small islanded electricity systems with wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation, using hourly demand and resource data for a range of locations in New Zealand. Normalised storage capacities with respect to annual demand for six locations with winter-peaking demand profiles were lower for wind generation than for PV generation, with an average PV:wind storage ratio of 1.768:1. For two summer-peaking demand profiles, normalised storage capacities were lower for PV generation, with storage ratios of 0.613:1 and 0.455:1. When the sensitivity of storage was modelled for winter-peaking demand profiles, average storage ratios were reduced. Hybrid wind/PV systems had lower storage capacity requirements than for wind generation alone for two locations. Peak power for storage charging was generally greater with PV generation than with wind generation, and peak charging power increased for the hybrid systems. The results are compared with those for country-scale electricity systems, and measures for minimising storage capacity are discussed. It is proposed that modelling of storage capacity requirements should be included in the design process at the earliest possible stage, and that new policy settings may be required to facilitate a transition to energy storage in fully renewable electricity systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Mason, I.G., 2015. "Comparative impacts of wind and photovoltaic generation on energy storage for small islanded electricity systems," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 793-805.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:80:y:2015:i:c:p:793-805
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.02.040

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Anagnostopoulos, J.S. & Papantonis, D.E., 2008. "Simulation and size optimization of a pumped–storage power plant for the recovery of wind-farms rejected energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1685-1694.
    2. Rasmussen, Morten Grud & Andresen, Gorm Bruun & Greiner, Martin, 2012. "Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 642-651.
    3. Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al. & Christakis, Dimitris G. & Zervos, Arthouros & Papantonis, Dimitris & Voutsinas, Spiros, 2008. "Pumped storage systems introduction in isolated power production systems," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 467-490.
    4. Heide, Dominik & von Bremen, Lueder & Greiner, Martin & Hoffmann, Clemens & Speckmann, Markus & Bofinger, Stefan, 2010. "Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2483-2489.
    5. Kear, Gareth & Chapman, Ralph, 2013. "‘Reserving judgement’: Perceptions of pumped hydro and utility-scale batteries for electricity storage and reserve generation in New Zealand," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 249-261.
    6. Bridier, Laurent & David, Mathieu & Lauret, Philippe, 2014. "Optimal design of a storage system coupled with intermittent renewables," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 2-9.
    7. Steffen, Bjarne, 2012. "Prospects for pumped-hydro storage in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 420-429.
    8. Mason, I.G. & Page, S.C. & Williamson, A.G., 2013. "Security of supply, energy spillage control and peaking options within a 100% renewable electricity system for New Zealand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 324-333.
    9. Anderson, Dennis & Leach, Matthew, 2004. "Harvesting and redistributing renewable energy: on the role of gas and electricity grids to overcome intermittency through the generation and storage of hydrogen," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(14), pages 1603-1614, September.
    10. Denholm, Paul & Hand, Maureen, 2011. "Grid flexibility and storage required to achieve very high penetration of variable renewable electricity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1817-1830, March.
    11. Pickard, William F. & Shen, Amy Q. & Hansing, Nicholas J., 2009. "Parking the power: Strategies and physical limitations for bulk energy storage in supply-demand matching on a grid whose input power is provided by intermittent sources," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(8), pages 1934-1945, October.
    12. Becker, Sarah & Frew, Bethany A. & Andresen, Gorm B. & Zeyer, Timo & Schramm, Stefan & Greiner, Martin & Jacobson, Mark Z., 2014. "Features of a fully renewable US electricity system: Optimized mixes of wind and solar PV and transmission grid extensions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 443-458.
    13. Mason, I.G. & Page, S.C. & Williamson, A.G., 2010. "A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 3973-3984, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Alami, Abdul Hai & Aokal, Kamilia & Abed, Jehad & Alhemyari, Mohammad, 2017. "Low pressure, modular compressed air energy storage (CAES) system for wind energy storage applications," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 201-211.
    2. Pujades, Estanislao & Orban, Philippe & Bodeux, Sarah & Archambeau, Pierre & Erpicum, Sébastien & Dassargues, Alain, 2017. "Underground pumped storage hydropower plants using open pit mines: How do groundwater exchanges influence the efficiency?," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 190(C), pages 135-146.
    3. Mason, I.G. & Miller, A.J.V., 2016. "Energetic and economic optimisation of islanded household-scale photovoltaic-plus-battery systems," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 96(PA), pages 559-573.
    4. Estanislao Pujades & Philippe Orban & Pierre Archambeau & Vasileios Kitsikoudis & Sebastien Erpicum & Alain Dassargues, 2020. "Underground Pumped-Storage Hydropower (UPSH) at the Martelange Mine (Belgium): Interactions with Groundwater Flow," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(9), pages 1-21, May.
    5. Papadopoulos, Agis M., 2020. "Renewable energies and storage in small insular systems: Potential, perspectives and a case study," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 103-114.
    6. Hamelink, Martijn & Opdenakker, Raymond, 2019. "How business model innovation affects firm performance in the energy storage market," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 131(C), pages 120-127.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Diesendorf, Mark & Elliston, Ben, 2018. "The feasibility of 100% renewable electricity systems: A response to critics," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 318-330.
    2. Schill, Wolf-Peter, 2014. "Residual Load, Renewable Surplus Generation and Storage Requirements in Germany," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 65-79.
    3. Hansen, Kenneth & Breyer, Christian & Lund, Henrik, 2019. "Status and perspectives on 100% renewable energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 175(C), pages 471-480.
    4. Rehman, Shafiqur & Al-Hadhrami, Luai M. & Alam, Md. Mahbub, 2015. "Pumped hydro energy storage system: A technological review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 586-598.
    5. Michael Lanahan & Paulo Cesar Tabares-Velasco, 2017. "Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency," Energies, MDPI, vol. 10(6), pages 1-24, May.
    6. Nayak-Luke, Richard & Bañares-Alcántara, René & Collier, Sam, 2021. "Quantifying network flexibility requirements in terms of energy storage," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 869-882.
    7. Dujardin, Jérôme & Kahl, Annelen & Kruyt, Bert & Bartlett, Stuart & Lehning, Michael, 2017. "Interplay between photovoltaic, wind energy and storage hydropower in a fully renewable Switzerland," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 513-525.
    8. Bartlett, Stuart & Dujardin, Jérôme & Kahl, Annelen & Kruyt, Bert & Manso, Pedro & Lehning, Michael, 2018. "Charting the course: A possible route to a fully renewable Swiss power system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 942-955.
    9. Elliston, Ben & MacGill, Iain & Diesendorf, Mark, 2013. "Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 270-282.
    10. Philip Tafarte & Marcus Eichhorn & Daniela Thrän, 2019. "Capacity Expansion Pathways for a Wind and Solar Based Power Supply and the Impact of Advanced Technology—A Case Study for Germany," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(2), pages 1-23, January.
    11. Mads Raunbak & Timo Zeyer & Kun Zhu & Martin Greiner, 2017. "Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network," Energies, MDPI, vol. 10(12), pages 1-13, November.
    12. Evans, Annette & Strezov, Vladimir & Evans, Tim J., 2012. "Assessment of utility energy storage options for increased renewable energy penetration," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 4141-4147.
    13. François, B. & Zoccatelli, D. & Borga, M., 2017. "Assessing small hydro/solar power complementarity in ungauged mountainous areas: A crash test study for hydrological prediction methods," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 716-729.
    14. Zerrahn, Alexander & Schill, Wolf-Peter, 2017. "Long-run power storage requirements for high shares of renewables: review and a new model," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 1518-1534.
    15. Haas, J. & Cebulla, F. & Cao, K. & Nowak, W. & Palma-Behnke, R. & Rahmann, C. & Mancarella, P., 2017. "Challenges and trends of energy storage expansion planning for flexibility provision in low-carbon power systems – a review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 603-619.
    16. Cebulla, F. & Fichter, T., 2017. "Merit order or unit-commitment: How does thermal power plant modeling affect storage demand in energy system models?," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 117-132.
    17. López Prol, Javier & Schill, Wolf-Peter, 2021. "The Economics of Variable Renewables and Electricity Storage," VfS Annual Conference 2021 (Virtual Conference): Climate Economics 242463, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    18. Blanco, Herib & Faaij, André, 2018. "A review at the role of storage in energy systems with a focus on Power to Gas and long-term storage," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1049-1086.
    19. Pietzcker, Robert C. & Ueckerdt, Falko & Carrara, Samuel & de Boer, Harmen Sytze & Després, Jacques & Fujimori, Shinichiro & Johnson, Nils & Kitous, Alban & Scholz, Yvonne & Sullivan, Patrick & Ludere, 2017. "System integration of wind and solar power in integrated assessment models: A cross-model evaluation of new approaches," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 583-599.
    20. Ashfaq, Asad & Ianakiev, Anton, 2018. "Cost-minimised design of a highly renewable heating network for fossil-free future," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 613-626.

    More about this item


    Storage; Electricity; Renewable; Wind; PV;
    All these keywords.


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:80:y:2015:i:c:p:793-805. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.