IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/pacfin/v65y2021ics0927538x20306946.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Supply-side structural reform and dynamic capital structure adjustment: Evidence from Chinese-listed firms

Author

Listed:
  • Jiang, Xiaochen
  • Shen, Jim Huangnan
  • Lee, Chien-Chiang
  • Chen, Chong

Abstract

The literature extensively discusses the increasing commitment toward comprehensive structural reform of China's economy as it targets to achieve high quality and sustainable economic growth. This research investigates the inherent relationship between supply-side structural reform (SSSR) and dynamic capital structure adjustment in Chinese-listed firms. Our results show that SSSR's introduction has significantly improved the adjustment speed toward the optimal debt ratio, especially for firms with high indebtedness and low investment performance. Importantly, China's bond market plays a crucial role through SSSR for firms' debt ratio to adjust toward their optimal level. However, there is no such evidence among state-owned enterprises (SOEs), suggesting that the structural reform concerning corporate capital structure for SOEs is more challenging and longstanding when compared with non-SOEs.

Suggested Citation

  • Jiang, Xiaochen & Shen, Jim Huangnan & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chen, Chong, 2021. "Supply-side structural reform and dynamic capital structure adjustment: Evidence from Chinese-listed firms," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:pacfin:v:65:y:2021:i:c:s0927538x20306946
    DOI: 10.1016/j.pacfin.2020.101482
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927538X20306946
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.pacfin.2020.101482?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lee, Chi-Chuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2019. "Oil price shocks and Chinese banking performance: Do country risks matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 46-53.
    2. Bhattacharyay, Biswa Nath, 2013. "Determinants of bond market development in Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 124-137.
    3. Flannery, Mark J. & Hankins, Kristine Watson, 2013. "Estimating dynamic panel models in corporate finance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-19.
    4. Wang, Yizhong & Chen, Carl R. & Huang, Ying Sophie, 2014. "Economic policy uncertainty and corporate investment: Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 227-243.
    5. Michael Faulkender & Mitchell A. Petersen, 2006. "Does the Source of Capital Affect Capital Structure?," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(1), pages 45-79.
    6. Xin Chang & Sudipto Dasgupta, 2009. "Target Behavior and Financing: How Conclusive Is the Evidence?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1767-1796, August.
    7. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    8. Cook, Douglas O. & Tang, Tian, 2010. "Macroeconomic conditions and capital structure adjustment speed," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 73-87, February.
    9. Mai, Yong & Meng, Lei & Ye, Zhiqiang, 2017. "Regional variation in the capital structure adjustment speed of listed firms: Evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 288-294.
    10. Kowalewski, Oskar & Pisany, Paweł, 2019. "What drove the growth of the corporate bond markets in Asia?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 365-380.
    11. Cuerpo, Carlos & Drumond, Inês & Lendvai, Julia & Pontuch, Peter & Raciborski, Rafal, 2015. "Private sector deleveraging in Europe," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 372-383.
    12. Mark T. Leary & Michael R. Roberts, 2005. "Do Firms Rebalance Their Capital Structures?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(6), pages 2575-2619, December.
    13. John R. Graham & Mark T. Leary, 2011. "A Review of Empirical Capital Structure Research and Directions for the Future," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 3(1), pages 309-345, December.
    14. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    15. Smaoui, Houcem & Grandes, Martin & Akindele, Akintoye, 2017. "The Determinants of Bond Market Development: Further Evidence from Emerging and Developed Countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 148-167.
    16. Wolfgang Drobetz & Gabrielle Wanzenried, 2006. "What determines the speed of adjustment to the target capital structure?," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(13), pages 941-958.
    17. Halling, Michael & Yu, Jin & Zechner, Josef, 2016. "Leverage dynamics over the business cycle," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 21-41.
    18. Wu, Xueping & Wang, Zheng, 2005. "Equity financing in a Myers-Majluf framework with private benefits of control," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 915-945, October.
    19. Ivens, Annika, 2018. "Optimal fiscal policy under private debt deleveraging," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 1-18.
    20. He, Wei & Kyaw, NyoNyo A., 2018. "Capital structure adjustment behaviors of Chinese listed companies: Evidence from the Split Share Structure Reform in China," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 14-22.
    21. Ritter, Jay R. & Warr, Richard S., 2002. "The Decline of Inflation and the Bull Market of 1982–1999," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(1), pages 29-61, March.
    22. Ralph de Haas & Marga Peeters, 2006. "The dynamic adjustment towards target capital structures of firms in transition economies," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 14(1), pages 133-169, March.
    23. Keefe, Michael O'Connor & Yaghoubi, Mona, 2016. "The influence of cash flow volatility on capital structure and the use of debt of different maturities," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 18-36.
    24. Liu, Guanchun & Zhang, Chengsi, 2020. "Economic policy uncertainty and firms' investment and financing decisions in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 63(C).
    25. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    26. Korajczyk, Robert A. & Levy, Amnon, 2003. "Capital structure choice: macroeconomic conditions and financial constraints," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 75-109, April.
    27. Hovakimian, Armen & Opler, Tim & Titman, Sheridan, 2001. "The Debt-Equity Choice," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(1), pages 1-24, March.
    28. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Wang, Chih-Wei, 2021. "Firms' cash reserve, financial constraint, and geopolitical risk," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    29. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    30. Huang, Rongbing & Ritter, Jay R., 2009. "Testing Theories of Capital Structure and Estimating the Speed of Adjustment," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(2), pages 237-271, April.
    31. Hong Bo, 2007. "Nonlinear Effects of Debt on Investment: Evidence from Dutch Listed Firms," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(7), pages 669-687.
    32. Faulkender, Michael & Flannery, Mark J. & Hankins, Kristine Watson & Smith, Jason M., 2012. "Cash flows and leverage adjustments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(3), pages 632-646.
    33. Antzoulatos, Angelos A. & Koufopoulos, Kostas & Lambrinoudakis, Costas & Tsiritakis, Emmanuel, 2016. "Supply of capital and capital structure: The role of financial development," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 166-195.
    34. En-Ze Wang & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2020. "Dynamic spillovers and connectedness between oil returns and policy uncertainty," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(35), pages 3788-3808, July.
    35. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    36. Öztekin, Özde & Flannery, Mark J., 2012. "Institutional determinants of capital structure adjustment speeds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 88-112.
    37. Flannery, Mark J. & Rangan, Kasturi P., 2006. "Partial adjustment toward target capital structures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 469-506, March.
    38. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    39. Woo, Wing Thye, 2019. "China's soft budget constraint on the demand-side undermines its supply-side structural reforms," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    40. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-1460, December.
    41. Zhang, Guangli & Han, Jianlei & Pan, Zheyao & Huang, Haozhi, 2015. "Economic policy uncertainty and capital structure choice: Evidence from China," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 439-457.
    42. Chen, Tao & Xie, Lingmin & Zhang, Yuanyuan, 2017. "How does analysts' forecast quality relate to corporate investment efficiency?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 217-240.
    43. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    44. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Ning, Shaolin & Hsieh, Meng-Fen & Lee, Chi-Chuan, 2020. "The going-public decision and rent-seeking activities: Evidence from Chinese private companies," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    45. Antoniou, Antonios & Guney, Yilmaz & Paudyal, Krishna, 2008. "The Determinants of Capital Structure: Capital Market-Oriented versus Bank-Oriented Institutions," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(1), pages 59-92, March.
    46. Yang, Liu & van Wijnbergen, S. & Qi, Xiaotong & Yi, Yuhuan, 2019. "Chinese shadow banking, financial regulation and effectiveness of monetary policy," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    47. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. "The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    48. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
    49. Livingston, Miles & Poon, Winnie P.H. & Zhou, Lei, 2018. "Are Chinese credit ratings relevant? A study of the Chinese bond market and credit rating industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 216-232.
    50. Fischer, Edwin O & Heinkel, Robert & Zechner, Josef, 1989. "Dynamic Capital Structure Choice: Theory and Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 19-40, March.
    51. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
    52. Wu, Xueping & Au Yeung, Chau Kin, 2012. "Firm growth type and capital structure persistence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 3427-3443.
    53. Zhuo-wan Liu & Tomas Balezentis & Yao-yao Song & Guo-liang Yang, 2019. "Estimating Capacity Utilization of Chinese State Farms," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(18), pages 1-29, September.
    54. Lai, Karen & Prasad, Ashna & Wong, George & Yusoff, Iliyas, 2020. "Corporate deleveraging and financial flexibility: A Chinese case-study," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    55. Yang, Guo-liang & Fukuyama, Hirofumi & Song, Yao-yao, 2019. "Estimating capacity utilization of Chinese manufacturing industries," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 94-110.
    56. Dong, Yan & Liu, Zhentao & Shen, Zhe & Sun, Qian, 2016. "Does State Ownership Really Matter in Determining Access to Bank Loans? Evidence from China's Partial Privatization," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 40(PA), pages 73-85.
    57. Yang, Zhenyi & Yu, Yiwei & Zhang, Yubing & Zhou, Sili, 2019. "Policy uncertainty exposure and market value: Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Wang, Chang-song, 2022. "Financial development, technological innovation and energy security: Evidence from Chinese provincial experience," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    2. Xu Wang & Xu Chu & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2023. "How does anti-corruption policy affect the sensitivity of green innovation to executive incentives?," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 56(1), pages 79-109, February.
    3. Lifeng Chen & Fuxuan Guo & Lingyan Huang, 2023. "Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Green Innovation: Evidence from China’s Provincial Panel Data," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(4), pages 1-17, February.
    4. Shen, Jim Huangnan & Long, Zhiming & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Zhang, Jun, 2022. "Comparative advantage, endowment structure, and trade imbalances," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 365-375.
    5. Jim Huangnan Shen & Weiping Li & Chien‐Chiang Lee, 2023. "Unlocking the myths of size expansion in China's large state‐owned enterprises: Theory and evidence," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 44(2), pages 1264-1284, March.
    6. Wu, Yizhong & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Lee, Chi-Chuan & Peng, Diyun, 2022. "Geographic proximity and corporate investment efficiency: Evidence from high-speed rail construction in China," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    7. Zhu, Chen & Jin, Zhuo & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2022. "The impact of informal care from children to their elderly parents on self-employment? Evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 117(C).
    8. Wen, Huwei & Liang, Weitao & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2022. "Urban broadband infrastructure and green total-factor energy efficiency in China," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    9. Ming Chen & Jiao Wu, 2023. "State ownership may not be bad: Based on bibliometric research (2002–2021)," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 44(2), pages 1285-1304, March.
    10. Qingmin Hao & Jim Huangnan Shen & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2023. "Risk contagion of bank-firm loan network: evidence from China," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 13(2), pages 341-361, June.
    11. Sun, Ya-Fang & Yu, Shiwei & Zhang, Yue-Jun & Su, Bin, 2023. "How do imports change the energy consumption of China? An analysis of its role in intermediate inputs and final demands," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 270(C).
    12. Chen, Ting-Hsuan & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Shen, Chung-Hua, 2022. "Liquidity indicators, early warning signals in banks, and financial crises," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    13. Niu, Yuhao & Wang, Sai & Wen, Wen & Li, Sifei, 2023. "Does digital transformation speed up dynamic capital structure adjustment? Evidence from China," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    14. Hussain, Jafar & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chen, Yongxiu, 2022. "Optimal green technology investment and emission reduction in emissions generating companies under the support of green bond and subsidy," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 183(C).
    15. Chien‐Chiang Lee & Godwin Olasehinde‐Williams, 2024. "Does economic complexity influence environmental performance? Empirical evidence from OECD countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(1), pages 356-382, January.
    16. Mou, Ying-Ge & Ma, Mengjuan & chen, Qian, 2022. "Measuring the role of consuming natural resource domination and social media for green economic recovery," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    17. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Xing, Wenwu & Lee, Chi-Chuan, 2022. "The impact of energy security on income inequality: The key role of economic development," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 248(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Morais, Flávio & Serrasqueiro, Zélia & Ramalho, Joaquim J.S., 2022. "Capital structure speed of adjustment heterogeneity across zero leverage and leveraged European firms," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    2. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller, 2019. "Determinants of Optimal Capital Structure and Speed of Adjustment: Evidence from the U.S. ICT Sector," Working papers 2019-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    3. Dang, Viet Anh & Kim, Minjoo & Shin, Yongcheol, 2014. "Asymmetric adjustment toward optimal capital structure: Evidence from a crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 226-242.
    4. Biswajit Ghose & Kailash Chandra Kabra, 2019. "Capital Structure Dynamics and Financing Imbalance: Evidence from an Emerging Economy," Emerging Economy Studies, International Management Institute, vol. 5(2), pages 103-124, November.
    5. Bontempi, Maria Elena & Bottazzi, Laura & Golinelli, Roberto, 2020. "A multilevel index of heterogeneous short-term and long-term debt dynamics," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    6. Drobetz, Wolfgang & Gounopoulos, Dimitrios & Merikas, Andreas & Schröder, Henning, 2013. "Capital structure decisions of globally-listed shipping companies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 49-76.
    7. Aflatooni, Abbas & Ghaderi, Kaveh & Mansouri, Kefsan, 2022. "Sanctions against Iran, political connections and speed of adjustment," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(PB).
    8. M. E. Bontempi & L. Bottazzi & R. Golinelli, 2015. "Dynamic corporate capital structure behavior: empirical assessment in the light of heterogeneity and non stationarity," Working Papers wp988, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    9. Amini, Shahram & Elmore, Ryan & Öztekin, Özde & Strauss, Jack, 2021. "Can machines learn capital structure dynamics?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    10. Biswajit Ghose, 2017. "Impact of Business Group Affiliation on Capital Structure Adjustment Speed: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Sector," Emerging Economy Studies, International Management Institute, vol. 3(1), pages 54-67, May.
    11. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Girma, Sourafel & Shah, M. Eskandar & Williams, Jonathan, 2014. "Dynamic capital structure and political patronage: The case of Malaysia," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 117-128.
    12. An, Zhe & Chen, Chen & Li, Donghui & Yin, Chao, 2021. "Foreign institutional ownership and the speed of leverage adjustment: International evidence," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    13. Dang, Tung Lam & Dang, Viet Anh & Moshirian, Fariborz & Nguyen, Lily & Zhang, Bohui, 2019. "News media coverage and corporate leverage adjustments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    14. Mai, Nhat Chi, 2012. "Market timing, taxes and capital structure: evidence from Vietnam," OSF Preprints t3mvs, Center for Open Science.
    15. G. Oka Warmana & I. Ketut Rahyuda & Ida Bagus Anom Purbawangsa & Ni Luh Gede Sri Artini, 2020. "Investigating Capital Structure Speed of Adjustment (SOA) of Indonesian Companies for Corporate Value," Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, Springer;Global Institute of Flexible Systems Management, vol. 21(3), pages 215-231, September.
    16. Bajaj, Yukti & Kashiramka, Smita & Singh, Shveta, 2021. "Economic policy uncertainty and leverage dynamics: Evidence from an emerging economy," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    17. Dang, Viet Anh & Kim, Minjoo & Shin, Yongcheol, 2012. "Asymmetric capital structure adjustments: New evidence from dynamic panel threshold models," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 465-482.
    18. Im, Hyun Joong & Kang, Ya & Shon, Janghoon, 2020. "How does uncertainty influence target capital structure?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    19. Dang, Viet Anh & Kim, Minjoo & Shin, Yongcheol, 2015. "In search of robust methods for dynamic panel data models in empirical corporate finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 84-98.
    20. Kim, Tae-Nyun & Kim, Kihun, 2018. "External cost of leverage adjustment: Evidence from defined benefit pension plans," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 1-14.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Supply-side structural reform; Dynamic capital structure adjustment; Optimal debt ratio; Bond market development; SOEs;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:pacfin:v:65:y:2021:i:c:s0927538x20306946. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/pacfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.