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Foreign issuers in the U.S. PIPE market


  • Haggard, K. Stephen
  • Zhang, Ying Jenny


We document that the use of private investment in public equity (PIPE) by foreign firms listed on U.S. exchanges is growing even faster than its use by U.S. firms. On average, foreign firm PIPE stock deals represent a similar proportion of the firm's market capitalization to U.S. firm PIPEs, but suffer less of a share price discount than U.S. firm PIPE issuances, a relation that is robust to consideration of exchange, deal size, share turnover and return volatility. We document that hedge funds are only small investors in foreign firm PIPEs issued in the U.S., which tend to be purchased by pensions, government funds and corporations. PIPE, in combination with the reverse merger method of going public, provides a cost-effective means for foreign firms to raise capital in the U.S. capital market.

Suggested Citation

  • Haggard, K. Stephen & Zhang, Ying Jenny, 2010. "Foreign issuers in the U.S. PIPE market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2-3), pages 144-157, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:mulfin:v:20:y:2010:i:2-3:p:144-157

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lakonishok, Josef & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1994. " Contrarian Investment, Extrapolation, and Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1541-1578, December.
    2. David J. Brophy & Paige P. Ouimet & Clemens Sialm, 2009. "Hedge Funds as Investors of Last Resort?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(2), pages 541-574, February.
    3. Moshirian, Fariborz, 2005. "Global financial markets integration and Millennium Goals," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4-5), pages 302-313, October.
    4. Chen, Hsuan-Chi & Dai, Na & Schatzberg, John D., 2010. "The choice of equity selling mechanisms: PIPEs versus SEOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 104-119, February.
    5. repec:hrv:faseco:30721347 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Martin, Anna D. & Nishikawa, Takeshi, 2009. "Changes in risk of foreign firms listed in the U.S. following Sarbanes-Oxley," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 193-205, July.
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