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Loan commitments and optimal monetary policy

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  • Woodford, Michael

Abstract

With loan commitments negotiated in advance, the use of tight money to restrain nominal spending has asymmetric effects upon different categories of borrowers. This can reduce efficiency, even though aggregate demand is stabilized. This is illustrated in the context of an equilibrium model of financial intermediation with loan commitments, where monetary policy is characterized by a supply curve for reserves on the part of the central bank in an inter-bank market. If demand uncertainty relates primarily to the intensity of demand by each borrower with no difference in the degree of cyclicality of individual borrowers' demands, an inelastic supply of reserves by the central bank is optimal, because it stabilizes aggregate demand and as a result increases average capacity utilization. But if demand uncertainty relates primarily to the number of borrowers rather than to each one's demand for credit, an interest-rate smoothing policy is optimal, because it eliminates inefficient rationing of credit in high-demand states.
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  • Woodford, Michael, 1996. "Loan commitments and optimal monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 573-605, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:moneco:v:37:y:1996:i:3:p:573-605
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    Cited by:

    1. Woon Gyu Choi & Yungsan Kim, 2001. "Monetary Policy and Corporate Liquid Asset Demand," IMF Working Papers 01/177, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Marcelle, Chauvet & Insu, Kim, 2010. "Microfoundations of Inflation Persistence in the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," MPRA Paper 23109, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Smith, R. Todd & van Egteren, Henry, 2005. "Interest rate smoothing and financial stability," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 147-171.
    4. José Manuel Gutiérrez, 2001. "Money in Consumption Economies," Vienna Economics Papers 0105, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
    5. Benjamin Eden, 2001. "Inventories and the Business Cycle: Testing a Sequential Trading Model," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 562-574, July.
    6. Benjamin Eden, 2001. "Inflation and Price Adjustment: An Analysis of Microdata," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(3), pages 607-636, July.
    7. Ariel M. Viale & Jeff Madura, 2014. "Learning Banks' Exposure To Systematic Risk: Evidence From The Financial Crisis Of 2008," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 37(1), pages 75-98, February.
    8. Pfajfar, D. & Zakelj, B., 2011. "Inflation Expectations and Monetary Policy Design : Evidence from the Laboratory (Replaces CentER DP 2009-007)," Discussion Paper 2011-091, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    9. Bental, Benjamin & Eden, Benjamin, 2002. "Reserve requirements and output fluctuations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(8), pages 1597-1620, November.
    10. Eyal Baharad & Benjamin Eden, 2004. "Price Rigidity and Price Dispersion: Evidence from Micro Data," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 7(3), pages 613-641, July.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General

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