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Two-period pricing and ordering policy for the dominant retailer in a two-echelon supply chain with demand uncertainty

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  • Pan, Kewen
  • Lai, K.K.
  • Liang, L.
  • Leung, Stephen C.H.

Abstract

Retailing channels are increasingly being dominated by 'power' retailers who are in a position to dictate prices and ordering schedules to manufacturers and suppliers. A dominant retailer, such as Wal-Mart, has the 'power' to decide retail prices of products because there are so many manufacturers who are keen to sell their products through or to such a large and powerful retailer. Several products, such as electronic products, can be sold in the market for some periods during their lifecycles before they retreat, except when they are not popular with consumers after been introduced. Therefore, in case of such products, the retailer should not just consider a single-period pricing and ordering policy. It should make dynamic pricing and ordering decisions based on market demand forecast, in order to obtain maximum cumulative profit from the product during its lifecycle. In this study, we consider this scenario and construct a two-period model to discuss pricing and ordering problems for a dominant retailer with demand uncertainty in a declining price environment. We show that the maximum expected profit function is continuous concave, so the optimal solution to pricing and ordering policy exists and it is the one and only. We also analyze sensitivity of retailer's expected profit to the effects of parameters of price-discount sharing scheme and market demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Pan, Kewen & Lai, K.K. & Liang, L. & Leung, Stephen C.H., 2009. "Two-period pricing and ordering policy for the dominant retailer in a two-echelon supply chain with demand uncertainty," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 919-929, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:37:y:2009:i:4:p:919-929
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Shi, Jianmai & Zhang, Guoqing, 2010. "Multi-product budget-constrained acquisition and pricing with uncertain demand and supplier quantity discounts," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 322-331, November.
    2. Zhou, Erfeng & Zhang, Juzhi & Gou, Qinglong & Liang, Liang, 2015. "A two period pricing model for new fashion style launching strategy," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 160(C), pages 144-156.
    3. Rana, Rupal & Oliveira, Fernando S., 2014. "Real-time dynamic pricing in a non-stationary environment using model-free reinforcement learning," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 116-126.
    4. repec:eee:transe:v:109:y:2018:i:c:p:63-82 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Kim, Sang-Won & Bell, Peter C., 2011. "Optimal pricing and production decisions in the presence of symmetrical and asymmetrical substitution," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 528-538, October.
    6. Cai, Wenbo & Abdel-Malek, Layek & Hoseini, Babak & Rajaei Dehkordi, Sharareh, 2015. "Impact of flexible contracts on the performance of both retailer and supplier," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 170(PB), pages 429-444.
    7. Huang, Ximin & Gu, Jia-Wen & Ching, Wai-Ki & Siu, Tak-Kuen, 2014. "Impact of secondary market on consumer return policies and supply chain coordination," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 57-70.
    8. Albareda-Sambola, Maria & Fernández, Elena & Saldanha-da-Gama, Francisco, 2011. "The facility location problem with Bernoulli demands," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 335-345, June.
    9. Hsieh, Ying-Jiun, 2011. "Demand switching criteria for multiple products: An inventory cost analysis," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 130-137, April.
    10. Han, Guanghua & Dong, Ming & Liu, Shaoxuan, 2014. "Yield and allocation management in a continuous make-to-stock system with demand upgrade substitution," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 124-131.
    11. Tang, Shao-Long & Yan, Hong, 2010. "Pre-distribution vs. post-distribution for cross-docking with transshipments," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 192-202, June.
    12. repec:eee:jomega:v:75:y:2018:i:c:p:118-130 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Chen, Kebing & Xiao, Tiaojun, 2015. "Outsourcing strategy and production disruption of supply chain with demand and capacity allocation uncertainties," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 170(PA), pages 243-257.
    14. Chakraborty, Tulika & Chauhan, Satyaveer S. & Vidyarthi, Navneet, 2015. "Coordination and competition in a common retailer channel: Wholesale price versus revenue-sharing mechanisms," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 103-118.
    15. repec:eee:jomega:v:75:y:2018:i:c:p:13-26 is not listed on IDEAS

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