Sex or gender? Expanding the sex-based view by introducing masculinity and femininity as predictors of financial risk taking
Women have proven to be more risk-averse than men in investment decisions in many studies. In Western cultures, risk taking is perceived as a masculine characteristic. We therefore hypothesize that the more people associate themselves with masculine attributes, the more financial risks they tend to take, regardless of biological sex. Study 1 showed that differences between men and women in financial risk taking decreased when identification with masculine attributes remained constant. Femininity, on the other hand, was not related to financial risk taking. In the second study, gender priming on masculinity and femininity affected risk taking of the male sample.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Powell, Melanie & Ansic, David, 1997. "Gender differences in risk behaviour in financial decision-making: An experimental analysis," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 605-628, November.
- William N. Goetzmann & Massimo Massa, 2003.
"Index Funds and Stock Market Growth,"
The Journal of Business,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(1), pages 1-28, January.
- Massimo Massa & William N. Goetzmann, 1998. "Index Funds and Stock Market Growth," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm99, Yale School of Management.
- William N. Goetzmann & Massimo Massa, 1999. "Index Funds and Stock Market Growth," NBER Working Papers 7033, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Massimo Massa & William N. Goetzmann, 1999. "Index Funds and Stock Market Growth," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm23, Yale School of Management.
- Mandel, Naomi, 2003. " Shifting Selves and Decision Making: The Effects of Self-Construal Priming on Consumer Risk-Taking," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 30-40, June.
- Meier, Katja & Kirchler, Erich & Hubert, Angela-Christian, 1999. "Savings and investment decisions within private households: Spouses' dominance in decisions on various forms of investment," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 499-519, October.
- Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2001. "Boys Will Be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence, And Common Stock Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 116(1), pages 261-292, February.
- LeRoy, Stephen F & LaCivita, C J, 1981. "Risk Aversion and the Dispersion of Asset Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(4), pages 535-47, October.
- Bargh, John A, 2002. " Losing Consciousness: Automatic Influences on Consumer Judgment, Behavior, and Motivation," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(2), pages 280-85, September.
- Jianakoplos, Nancy Ammon & Bernasek, Alexandra, 1998. "Are Women More Risk Averse?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(4), pages 620-30, October.
- Siegrist, Michael & Cvetkovich, George & Gutscher, Heinz, 2002. "Risk Preference Predictions and Gender Stereotypes," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 91-102, January.
- Hartog, Joop & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada & Jonker, Nicole, 2002. "Linking Measured Risk Aversion to Individual Characteristics," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 3-26.
- Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
- Catherine C. Eckel & Philip J. Grossman, 2002. "Sex Differences and Statistical Stereotyping in Attitudes Toward Financial Risk," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-03, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- Kirmani, Amna & Lee, Michelle P. & Yoon, Carolyn, 2004. "Procedural priming effects on spontaneous inference formation," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 859-875, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:joepsy:v:29:y:2008:i:2:p:180-196. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.