Country effect on firm performance: A multilevel approach
The debate about the impact of environmental constraints on firm performance in developing countries is relevant for business enterprises and governments. However, the academic literature offers limited empirical evidence comparing firm performance in emerging and developed countries. This paper performs a statistical analysis based on a sample of more than 10,000 firms in a 10-year span. A cross-classified 3-level hierarchical linear model allows the estimation of country, industry and country-industry interaction effects, which have roughly the same relative importance each. The analytical procedure is able to estimate the influence of each specific country on firm performance and produce a ranking of nations based on this effect. Country effects have a greater positive influence on firm performance in emerging countries than in more developed economies.
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