Variable annuities and the option to seek risk: Why should you diversify?
We analyze the impacts of an additional rider incorporated in recent retirement products. The payoff is linked to the performance of a multi asset investment strategy and includes a minimum interest rate guarantee. In addition, the buyer receives the option to decide on the investments dynamically. Prominent examples are so called variable annuities. Due to the embedded guarantee, these products are interesting for risk averse investors who benefit from diversification. However, the price setting of the provider takes into account the most risky strategy. This implies that the investor mitigates optimally between the diversification and the worst case strategy. We analyze the distortion and utility effects caused by the additional rider in the presence of background risk and borrowing constraints. A simulation analysis sheds light on the question if the additional rider is worth its costs.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bacinello, Anna Rita & Millossovich, Pietro & Olivieri, Annamaria & Pitacco, Ermanno, 2011. "Variable annuities: A unifying valuation approach," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 285-297.
- T. J. Lyons, 1995. "Uncertain volatility and the risk-free synthesis of derivatives," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 117-133.
- Zvi Bodie & Robert C. Merton & William F. Samuelson, 1992.
"Labor Supply Flexibility and Portfolio Choice in a Life-Cycle Model,"
NBER Working Papers
3954, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bodie, Zvi & Merton, Robert C. & Samuelson, William F., 1992. "Labor supply flexibility and portfolio choice in a life cycle model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 427-449.
- Freddy Delbaen & Marc Yor, 2002. "Passport Options," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 299-328.
- Luis M. Viceira, 2001.
"Optimal Portfolio Choice for Long-Horizon Investors with Nontradable Labor Income,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 433-470, 04.
- Luis M. Viceira, 1999. "Optimal Portfolio Choice for Long-Horizon Investors with Nontradable Labor Income," NBER Working Papers 7409, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, John Y. & Viceira, Luis M., 2002. "Strategic Asset Allocation: Portfolio Choice for Long-Term Investors," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296942, March.
- Anna Rita Bacinello & Enrico Biffis & Pietro Millossovich, 2010. "Regression-based algorithms for life insurance contracts with surrender guarantees," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(9), pages 1077-1090.
- Nielsen, J. Aase & Sandmann, Klaus & Schlögl, Erik, 2011.
"Equity-linked pension schemes with guarantees,"
Insurance: Mathematics and Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 547-564.
- Günter Franke & Harris Schlesinger & Richard C. Stapleton, 2011.
"Risk Taking with Additive and Multiplicative Background Risks,"
Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz
2011-25, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
- Franke, Guenter & Schlesinger, Harris & Stapleton, Richard C., 2011. "Risk taking with additive and multiplicative background risks," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(4), pages 1547-1568, July.
- M. Avellaneda & A. Levy & A. ParAS, 1995. "Pricing and hedging derivative securities in markets with uncertain volatilities," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(2), pages 73-88.
- Mahayni, Antje & Schoenmakers, John G.M., 2011. "Minimum return guarantees with fund switching rights—An optimal stopping problem," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 1880-1897.
- Cesari, Riccardo & Cremonini, David, 2003. "Benchmarking, portfolio insurance and technical analysis: a Monte Carlo comparison of dynamic strategies of asset allocation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 987-1011, April.
- Grossman, Sanford J. & Vila, Jean-Luc, 1992. "Optimal Dynamic Trading with Leverage Constraints," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(02), pages 151-168, June.
- Bertrand, Philippe & Prigent, Jean-luc, 2011. "Omega performance measure and portfolio insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1811-1823, July.
- Branger, Nicole & Mahayni, Antje & Schneider, Judith C., 2010. "On the optimal design of insurance contracts with guarantees," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 485-492, June.
- Brennan, Michael J. & Schwartz, Eduardo S., 1976. "The pricing of equity-linked life insurance policies with an asset value guarantee," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 195-213, June.
- Døskeland, Trond M. & Nordahl, Helge A., 2008.
"Optimal pension insurance design,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 382-392, March.
- Min Dai & Yue Kuen Kwok & Jianping Zong, 2008. "Guaranteed Minimum Withdrawal Benefit In Variable Annuities," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 595-611.
- El Karoui, Nicole & Jeanblanc, Monique & Lacoste, Vincent, 2005. "Optimal portfolio management with American capital guarantee," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 449-468, March.
- Huaxiong Huang & Moshe A. Milevsky & Jin Wang, 2008. "Portfolio Choice and Life Insurance: The CRRA Case," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 75(4), pages 847-872.
- Horneff, Wolfram & Maurer, Raimond & Rogalla, Ralph, 2010. "Dynamic portfolio choice with deferred annuities," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2652-2664, November.
- Annaert, Jan & Osselaer, Sofieke Van & Verstraete, Bert, 2009. "Performance evaluation of portfolio insurance strategies using stochastic dominance criteria," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 272-280, February.
- Cox, John C. & Leland, Hayne E., 2000. "On dynamic investment strategies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(11-12), pages 1859-1880, October.
- Dichtl, Hubert & Drobetz, Wolfgang, 2011. "Portfolio insurance and prospect theory investors: Popularity and optimal design of capital protected financial products," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1683-1697, July.
- Hyeng Keun Koo, 1998. "Consumption and Portfolio Selection with Labor Income: A Continuous Time Approach," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(1), pages 49-65.
- Valery Polkovnichenko, 2007. "Life-Cycle Portfolio Choice with Additive Habit Formation Preferences and Uninsurable Labor Income Risk," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(1), pages 83-124, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:36:y:2012:i:9:p:2417-2428. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.