IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ise/remwps/wp0942019.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

On Path–dependency ofConstant Proportion Portfolio Insurance strategies

Author

Listed:
  • João Carvalho
  • João Beleza Sousa
  • Raquel M. Gaspar

Abstract

This paper evaluates the path–dependency/independency of most widespread PortfolioInsurance strategies. In particular, we look at Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI)structures and compare them to both the classical Option Based Portfolio Insurance(OBPI)and naive strategies such as Stop-loss Portfolio Insurance (SLPI) or a CPPI with a multiplierof one. The paper is based uponconditional Monte Carlo simulations and we show that CPPI strategies with a multiplier higher than 1 are extremely path-dependent and that they can easilyget cash-locked, even in scenarios when the underlying at maturity can be worth much morethan initially. The likelihood of being cash-locked increases with the size of the multiplierand the maturity of the CPPI, as well as with properties of the risky underlying’s dynamics.To emphasize the path dependency of CPPIs,we show that even in scenarios where theinvestor correctly “guesses” a higher future value for the underlying, CPPIs can get cash-locked,losing the linkage to the risky asset.This cash-lock problem is specific of CPPIs, itgoes against its European-style nature of traded CPPIs, and it introduces into the strategy a risks not related to the underlying risky asset – a design risk.Design risk does not occur forpath-independent portfolio insurance strategies, like the classical case of OBPI strategies, norin naive strategies. This study contributes to reinforce the idea that CPPI strategies suffer froma serious design problem.

Suggested Citation

  • João Carvalho & João Beleza Sousa & Raquel M. Gaspar, 2019. "On Path–dependency ofConstant Proportion Portfolio Insurance strategies," Working Papers REM 2019/94, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa.
  • Handle: RePEc:ise:remwps:wp0942019
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://rem.rc.iseg.ulisboa.pt/wps/pdf/REM_WP_094_2019.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Whitmore, G A, 1970. "Third-Degree Stochastic Dominance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(3), pages 457-459, June.
    2. Weng, Chengguo, 2013. "Constant proportion portfolio insurance under a regime switching exponential Lévy process," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 508-521.
    3. Oliver Linton & Esfandiar Maasoumi & Yoon-Jae Whang, 2005. "Consistent Testing for Stochastic Dominance under General Sampling Schemes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(3), pages 735-765.
    4. Alexandre Hocquard & Nicolas Papageorgiou & Bruno Remillard, 2015. "The payoff distribution model: an application to dynamic portfolio insurance," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 299-312, February.
    5. Philippe Bertrand & Jean-Luc Prigent & Jean-Pierre Lesne, 2001. "Portfolio Insurance: The Extreme Value Theory of the Cppi Method," Post-Print hal-01833134, HAL.
    6. Kingston, Geoffrey, 1989. "Theoretical foundations of constant-proportion portfolio insurance," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 345-347.
    7. Tapan Biswas, 2012. "Stochastic Dominance and Comparative Risk Aversion," Review of Economic Analysis, Digital Initiatives at the University of Waterloo Library, vol. 4(1), pages 105-122, June.
    8. James P. Quirk & Rubin Saposnik, 1962. "Admissibility and Measurable Utility Functions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(2), pages 140-146.
    9. Annaert, Jan & Osselaer, Sofieke Van & Verstraete, Bert, 2009. "Performance evaluation of portfolio insurance strategies using stochastic dominance criteria," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 272-280, February.
    10. Rama Cont & Peter Tankov, 2009. "Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance In The Presence Of Jumps In Asset Prices," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 379-401, July.
    11. Dichtl, Hubert & Drobetz, Wolfgang, 2011. "Portfolio insurance and prospect theory investors: Popularity and optimal design of capital protected financial products," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1683-1697, July.
    12. Merton, Robert C., 1971. "Optimum consumption and portfolio rules in a continuous-time model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 373-413, December.
    13. Bertrand, Philippe & Prigent, Jean-luc, 2011. "Omega performance measure and portfolio insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1811-1823, July.
    14. P. Bertrand & J.L. Prigent, 2000. "Portfolio Insurance : The extreme Value of the CCPI Method," THEMA Working Papers 2000-49, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    15. Rudi Zagst & Julia Kraus, 2011. "Stochastic dominance of portfolio insurance strategies," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 185(1), pages 75-103, May.
    16. Hadar, Josef & Russell, William R, 1969. "Rules for Ordering Uncertain Prospects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 25-34, March.
    17. Cesari, Riccardo & Cremonini, David, 2003. "Benchmarking, portfolio insurance and technical analysis: a Monte Carlo comparison of dynamic strategies of asset allocation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 987-1011, April.
    18. Russell Davidson & Jean-Yves Duclos, 2000. "Statistical Inference for Stochastic Dominance and for the Measurement of Poverty and Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(6), pages 1435-1464, November.
    19. Philippe Bertrand & Jean-Luc Prigent, 2005. "Portfolio Insurance Strategies: OBPI versus CPPI," Post-Print hal-01833077, HAL.
    20. Jean-Luc Prigent & Philippe Bertrand, 2011. "Omega performance measure and portfolio insurance," Post-Print hal-01833064, HAL.
    21. Bjork, Tomas, 2009. "Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 3, number 9780199574742.
    22. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    23. Philippe Bertrand & Jean-Luc Prigent, 2003. "Portfolio Insurance Strategies: A Comparison of Standard Methods When the Volatility of the Stock is Stochastic," Post-Print hal-01833118, HAL.
    24. Richard Bookstaber & Joseph A. Langsam, 1988. "Portfolio insurance trading rules," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(1), pages 15-31, February.
    25. Levy, Haim & Wiener, Zvi, 1998. "Stochastic Dominance and Prospect Dominance with Subjective Weighting Functions," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 147-163, May-June.
    26. Black, Fischer & Perold, AndreF., 1992. "Theory of constant proportion portfolio insurance," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 403-426.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Raquel M. Gaspar & Paulo M. Silva, 2019. "Investors’ Perspective on Portfolio InsuranceExpected Utility vs Prospect Theories," Working Papers REM 2019/92, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sami Attaoui & Vincent Lacoste, 2013. "A scenario-based description of optimal American capital guaranteed strategies," Post-Print hal-00867667, HAL.
    2. Sami Attaoui & Vincent Lacoste, 2013. "A scenario-based description of optimal American capital guaranteed strategies," Finance, Presses universitaires de Grenoble, vol. 34(2), pages 65-119.
    3. Jacques Pézier & Johanna Scheller, 2011. "A Comprehensive Evaluation of Portfolio Insurance Strategies," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2011-15, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    4. Hamidi, Benjamin & Maillet, Bertrand & Prigent, Jean-Luc, 2014. "A dynamic autoregressive expectile for time-invariant portfolio protection strategies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-29.
    5. Farid MKAOUAR & Jean-luc PRIGENT, 2014. "Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance under Tolerance and Transaction Costs," Working Papers 2014-303, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    6. Pézier, Jacques & Scheller, Johanna, 2013. "Best portfolio insurance for long-term investment strategies in realistic conditions," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 263-274.
    7. Raquel M. Gaspar & Paulo M. Silva, 2019. "Investors’ Perspective on Portfolio InsuranceExpected Utility vs Prospect Theories," Working Papers REM 2019/92, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa.
    8. Olga Biedova & Victoria Steblovskaya, 2020. "Multiplier Optimization For Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (Cppi) Strategy," International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance (IJTAF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 23(02), pages 1-22, March.
    9. David Happersberger & Harald Lohre & Ingmar Nolte, 2020. "Estimating portfolio risk for tail risk protection strategies," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 26(4), pages 1107-1146, September.
    10. Zagst, Rudi & Kraus, Julia & Bertrand, Philippe, 2019. "Option-Based performance participation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 44-61.
    11. Hubert Dichtl & Wolfgang Drobetz & Martin Wambach, 2017. "A bootstrap-based comparison of portfolio insurance strategies," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 31-59, January.
    12. Zieling, Daniel & Mahayni, Antje & Balder, Sven, 2014. "Performance evaluation of optimized portfolio insurance strategies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 212-225.
    13. J. Annaert & S. Van Osselaer & B. Verstraete, 2007. "Performance evaluation of portfolio insurance strategies using stochastic dominance criteria," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 07/473, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    14. Dichtl, Hubert & Drobetz, Wolfgang, 2011. "Portfolio insurance and prospect theory investors: Popularity and optimal design of capital protected financial products," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1683-1697, July.
    15. Christian Hertrich, 2013. "Asset Allocation Considerations for Pension Insurance Funds," Springer Books, Springer, edition 127, number 978-3-658-02167-2, January.
    16. Bertrand, Philippe & Prigent, Jean-luc, 2011. "Omega performance measure and portfolio insurance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1811-1823, July.
    17. Lam, Kin & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Wong, Wing-Keung, 2016. "Stochastic Dominance and Investors’ Behavior towards Risk: The Hong Kong Stocks and Futures Markets," MPRA Paper 74386, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Jiang, Chonghui & Ma, Yongkai & An, Yunbi, 2009. "The effectiveness of the VaR-based portfolio insurance strategy: An empirical analysis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 185-197, September.
    19. L. Di Persio & I. Oliva. K. Wallbaum, 2019. "Options on CPPI with guaranteed minimum equity exposure," Papers 1902.06505, arXiv.org.
    20. Annaert, Jan & Osselaer, Sofieke Van & Verstraete, Bert, 2009. "Performance evaluation of portfolio insurance strategies using stochastic dominance criteria," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 272-280, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Portfolio Insurance; CPPI; OBPI; SLPI; path-dependencies; cash-lock; Conditioned GBM Simulations;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ise:remwps:wp0942019. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sandra Araújo). General contact details of provider: https://rem.rc.iseg.ulisboa.pt/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.