Equity-Linked Pension Schemes with Guarantees
This paper analyses the relationship between the level of a return guarantee in an equity-linked pension scheme and the proportion of an investor's contribution needed to finance this guarantee. Three types of schemes are considered: investment guarantee, contribution guarantee and participation surplus. The evaluation of each scheme involves pricing an Asian option, for which relatively tight upper and lower bounds can be calculated in a numerically efficient manner. We find a negative (and for two contracts pecifications also concave) relationship between the participation in the surplus return of the investment strategy and the guarantee level in terms of a minimum rate of return. Furthermore, the introduction of a possibility of early termination of the contract (e.g. due to the death of the investor) has no qualitative and very little quantitative impact on this relationship.
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- Nielsen, J.A. & Sandmann, K., 1998. "Asian Exchange Rate Options under Stochastic Interest Rates: Pricing as a Sum of Delayed Payment Options," Discussion Paper Serie B 431, University of Bonn, Germany.
- J. Aase Nielsen & Klaus Sandmann, 1996.
"Uniqueness of the Fair Premium for Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts,"
The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(1), pages 65-102, June.
- Nielsen, J. Aase & Klaus Sandmann, 1995. "Uniqueness of the Fair Premium for Equity-Linked Life Insurance Contracts," Discussion Paper Serie B 327, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Mar 1996.
- Nielsen, J. Aase & Sandmann, Klaus, 2003. "Pricing Bounds on Asian Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(02), pages 449-473, June.
- Bacinello, Anna Rita & Ortu, Fulvio, 1993. "Pricing equity-linked life insurance with endogenous minimum guarantees," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 245-257, June.
- Steinar Ekern & Svein-Arne Persson, 1996. "Exotic Unit-Linked Life Insurance Contracts," The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 21(1), pages 35-63, June.
- Heath, David & Jarrow, Robert & Morton, Andrew, 1992. "Bond Pricing and the Term Structure of Interest Rates: A New Methodology for Contingent Claims Valuation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 77-105, January.
- Nielsen, J. Aase & Klaus Sandmann, 1995.
"Equity-linked life insurance - a model with stochastic interest rates,"
Discussion Paper Serie B
291, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Mar 1995.
- Aase Nielsen, J. & Sandmann, Klaus, 1995. "Equity-linked life insurance: A model with stochastic interest rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 225-253, July.
- Michael Curran, 1994. "Valuing Asian and Portfolio Options by Conditioning on the Geometric Mean Price," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(12), pages 1705-1711, December.
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