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Options, short-sale constraints and market efficiency: A new perspective

  • Phillips, Blake
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    This paper undertakes a new investigation of the potential for options to mitigate short-sale constraints. I find that option introduction alleviates 79% of the price adjustment efficiency disparity between short-sale constrained and unconstrained stocks in relation to negative news. No significant improvement in adjustment efficiency is found in response to positive information. These results are robust to controls for endogeneity biases associated with the option introduction selection process. Further, I find evidence that post-option improvement in efficiency is similar in relation to private and public information. This suggests that short-sale constraint effects stem, at least in part, from an irrational, optimism bias or another behavioral source as suggested theoretically by Miller (1977). Collectively, these results suggest that options act as an effective substitute to short-sales, significantly contributing to the informational efficiency of the market.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCY-50W80TR-2/2/64387e21b03892475e709392e0b79657
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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 35 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 430-442

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:35:y:2011:i:2:p:430-442
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

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    1. Charles M. Jones & Owen A. Lamont, 2001. "Short Sale Constraints and Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 8494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
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    4. Mazouz, Khelifa, 2004. "The effect of CBOE option listing on the volatility of NYSE traded stocks: a time-varying variance approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 695-708, December.
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    7. Joseph Chen & Harrison Hong & Jeremy C. Stein, 2001. "Breadth of Ownership and Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 8151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Sugato Chakravarty & Huseyin Gulen & Stewart Mayhew, 2004. "Informed Trading in Stock and Option Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(3), pages 1235-1258, 06.
    9. Sorin M. Sorescu, 2000. "The Effect of Options on Stock Prices: 1973 to 1995," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 487-514, 02.
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    11. Danielsen, Bartley R. & van Ness, Bonnie F. & Warr, Richard S., 2007. "Reassessing the Impact of Option Introductions on Market Quality: A Less Restrictive Test for Event-Date Effects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(04), pages 1041-1062, December.
    12. Chen, Crystal Xiaobei & Rhee, S. Ghon, 2010. "Short sales and speed of price adjustment: Evidence from the Hong Kong stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 471-483, February.
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    14. Asquith, Paul & Pathak, Parag A. & Ritter, Jay R., 2005. "Short interest, institutional ownership, and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 243-276, November.
    15. Amihud, Yakov, 2002. "Illiquidity and stock returns: cross-section and time-series effects," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 31-56, January.
    16. Nilsson, Roland, 2008. "The value of shorting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 880-891, May.
    17. Faff, Robert & Hillier, David, 2005. "Complete markets, informed trading and equity option introductions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1359-1384, June.
    18. Fedenia, Mark & Grammatikos, Theoharry, 1992. "Options Trading and the Bid-Ask Spread of the Underlying Stocks," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65(3), pages 335-51, July.
    19. Stewart Mayhew & Vassil Mihov, 2004. "How Do Exchanges Select Stocks for Option Listing?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 447-471, 02.
    20. Miller, Edward M, 1977. "Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-68, September.
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