IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finmar/v13y2010i4p397-421.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The skinny on the 2008 naked short-sale restrictions

Author

Listed:
  • Boulton, Thomas J.
  • Braga-Alves, Marcus V.

Abstract

On July 15, 2008, the US Securities and Exchange Commission announced temporary restrictions on naked short sales of the stocks of 19 financial firms. The restrictions offer a unique empirical setting to test Miller's (1977) conjecture that short-sale constraints result in overpriced securities and low subsequent returns. Consistent with Miller's overpricing hypothesis, we find evidence of a positive (negative) market reaction to the announcement (expiration) of the short-sale restrictions. Announcement returns are higher for firms that appear to be subject to more naked short selling in the days immediately preceding the announcement of the restrictions. The restrictions are successful in eliminating naked short sales for the restricted stocks, but naked short sales increase dramatically for a closely matched sample of financial firms during the restricted period. We also find that the restrictions negatively impact various measures of liquidity, including bid-ask spreads and trading volume. From a public policy perspective, our findings suggest that, at a minimum, policymakers should pause when considering further short sale restrictions.

Suggested Citation

  • Boulton, Thomas J. & Braga-Alves, Marcus V., 2010. "The skinny on the 2008 naked short-sale restrictions," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 397-421, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finmar:v:13:y:2010:i:4:p:397-421
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386-4181(10)00020-0
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bennett, Paul & Wei, Li, 2006. "Market structure, fragmentation, and market quality," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 49-78, February.
    2. Harrington, Scott E. & Shrider, David G., 2007. "All Events Induce Variance: Analyzing Abnormal Returns When Effects Vary across Firms," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(01), pages 229-256, March.
    3. Owen Lamont, 2004. "Go Down Fighting: Short Sellers vs. Firms," NBER Working Papers 10659, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Abreu, Dilip & Brunnermeier, Markus K., 2002. "Synchronization risk and delayed arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 341-360.
    5. Jones, Charles M & Kaul, Gautam & Lipson, Marc L, 1994. "Transactions, Volume, and Volatility," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(4), pages 631-651.
    6. Chen, Joseph & Hong, Harrison & Stein, Jeremy C., 2002. "Breadth of ownership and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 171-205.
    7. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    8. Arturo Bris & William N. Goetzmann & Ning Zhu, 2007. "Efficiency and the Bear: Short Sales and Markets Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(3), pages 1029-1079, June.
    9. Hemang Desai & K. Ramesh & S. Ramu Thiagarajan & Bala V. Balachandran, 2002. "An Investigation of the Informational Role of Short Interest in the Nasdaq Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2263-2287, October.
    10. Boehmer, Ekkehart & Masumeci, Jim & Poulsen, Annette B., 1991. "Event-study methodology under conditions of event-induced variance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 253-272, December.
    11. Nagel, Stefan, 2005. "Short sales, institutional investors and the cross-section of stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 277-309, November.
    12. Richard B. Evans & Christopher C. Geczy & Adam V. Reed, 2009. "Failure Is an Option: Impediments to Short Selling and Options Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(5), pages 1955-1980, May.
    13. Miller, Edward M, 1977. "Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-1168, September.
    14. Jose A. Scheinkman & Wei Xiong, 2003. "Overconfidence and Speculative Bubbles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(6), pages 1183-1219, December.
    15. Yadav, Pradeep K. & Fotak, Veljko & Raman, Vikas, 2009. "Naked short selling: The emperor`s new clothes?," CFR Working Papers 09-09, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    16. Figlewski, Stephen, 1981. "The Informational Effects of Restrictions on Short Sales: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(04), pages 463-476, November.
    17. Alexander, Gordon J. & Peterson, Mark A., 2008. "The effect of price tests on trader behavior and market quality: An analysis of Reg SHO," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 84-111, February.
    18. Geczy, Christopher C. & Musto, David K. & Reed, Adam V., 2002. "Stocks are special too: an analysis of the equity lending market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 241-269.
    19. Bacidore, Jeffrey M. & Sofianos, George, 2002. "Liquidity provision and specialist trading in NYSE-listed non-U.S. stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 133-158, January.
    20. Jones, Charles M. & Lamont, Owen A., 2002. "Short-sale constraints and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 207-239.
    21. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    22. Asquith, Paul & Pathak, Parag A. & Ritter, Jay R., 2005. "Short interest, institutional ownership, and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 243-276, November.
    23. Danielsen, Bartley R. & Sorescu, Sorin M., 2001. "Why Do Option Introductions Depress Stock Prices? A Study of Diminishing Short Sale Constraints," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(04), pages 451-484, December.
    24. Hans R. Stoll, 2000. "Presidential Address: Friction," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1479-1514, August.
    25. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
    26. Figlewski, Stephen & Webb, Gwendolyn P, 1993. " Options, Short Sales, and Market Completeness," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 761-777, June.
    27. Boni, Leslie, 2006. "Strategic delivery failures in U.S. equity markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-26, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:bla:acctfi:v:57:y:2017:i:3:p:727-757 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Fotak, Veljko & Raman, Vikas & Yadav, Pradeep K., 2014. "Fails-to-deliver, short selling, and market quality," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(3), pages 493-516.
    3. Stratmann, Thomas & Welborn, John W., 2016. "Informed short selling, fails-to-deliver, and abnormal returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PA), pages 81-102.
    4. Gerlinde Fellner & Erik Theissen, 2006. "Short Sale Constraints, Divergence of Opinion and Asset Values: Evidence from the Laboratory," Labsi Experimental Economics Laboratory University of Siena 009, University of Siena.
    5. Bohl, Martin T. & Klein, Arne C. & Siklos, Pierre L., 2014. "Short-selling bans and institutional investors' herding behaviour: Evidence from the global financial crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 262-269.
    6. Bohl, Martin T. & Klein, Arne C. & Siklos, Pierre L., 2013. "Are short sellers positive feedback traders? Evidence from the global financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 337-346.
    7. Lensberg, Terje & Schenk-Hoppé, Klaus Reiner & Ladley, Dan, 2015. "Costs and benefits of financial regulation: Short-selling bans and transaction taxes," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 103-118.
    8. Kadapakkam, Palani-Rajan & Zhang, Hongxian, 2014. "Investor ignorance in markets for worthless stocks," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 197-218.
    9. Lee, Bong-Soo & Ko, Kwangsoo, 2014. "Are Japanese short sellers information detectives?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 89-97.
    10. Le, Van & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2016. "The impact of short sale restrictions on informed trading in the stock and options markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 262-273.
    11. Jain, Archana & Jain, Pankaj K. & McInish, Thomas H. & McKenzie, Michael, 2013. "Worldwide reach of short selling regulations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 177-197.
    12. Dungey, Mardi & McKenzie, Michael D. & Yalama, Abdullah, 2013. "The cross market effects of short sale restrictions," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 53-71.
    13. Sheridan Titman & Naoto Isaka, 2014. "Long-run Effects of Minimum Trading Unit Reductions on Stock Prices," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 14(1), pages 75-103, March.
    14. Autore, Don M. & Gehy, Dominique, 2013. "Changing the rules again: Short selling in connection with public equity offers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1974-1985.
    15. Frino, Alex & Lecce, Steven & Lepone, Andrew, 2011. "Short-sales constraints and market quality: Evidence from the 2008 short-sales bans," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 225-236, August.
    16. Erik Devos & Thomas McInish & Michael McKenzie & James Upson, 2014. "Naked Short Selling and the Market Impact of Fails-to-Deliver: Evidence from the Trading of Real Estate Investment Trusts," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 49(4), pages 454-476, November.
    17. repec:eee:finmar:v:36:y:2017:i:c:p:115-131 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Fellner, Gerlinde & Theissen, Erik, 2014. "Short sale constraints, divergence of opinion and asset prices: Evidence from the laboratory," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 113-127.
    19. Stratmann, Thomas & Welborn, John W., 2013. "The options market maker exception to SEC Regulation SHO," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 195-226.
    20. Autore, Don M. & Billingsley, Randall S. & Kovacs, Tunde, 2011. "The 2008 short sale ban: Liquidity, dispersion of opinion, and the cross-section of returns of US financial stocks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2252-2266, September.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finmar:v:13:y:2010:i:4:p:397-421. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/finmar .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.