The value of shorting
This paper assesses the effects of short-sale constraints on asset prices. The analysis focuses on a particular period in Sweden during which shorting stocks was impossible but stock options were traded. Firstly, the effect on both stock options and the underlying stock was investigated jointly by considering deviations from put-call-parity. Secondly, the effects on only the derivatives were investigated by considering their implied volatilites. The main findings are: (i) the impact on pricing are consistent with a short-sale constraint, (ii) these effects are much more pronounced when shorting is not possible, (iii) these effects are not solely attributable to the mispricing of the stock, as previous research indicates, and (iv) access to international shorting markets can alleviate local short-sale constraints.
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- Ofek, Eli & Richardson, Matthew & Whitelaw, Robert F., 2004. "Limited arbitrage and short sales restrictions: evidence from the options markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 305-342, November.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
- Chen, Joseph & Hong, Harrison & Stein, Jeremy C., 2002.
"Breadth of ownership and stock returns,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 171-205.
- Zivney, Terry L., 1991. "The Value of Early Exercise in Option Prices: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(01), pages 129-138, March.
- Barone-Adesi, Giovanni & Whaley, Robert E, 1987. " Efficient Analytic Approximation of American Option Values," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 301-320, June.
- Day, Theodore E. & Lewis, Craig M., 1988. "The behavior of the volatility implicit in the prices of stock index options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 103-122, October.
- Kamara, Avraham & Miller, Thomas W., 1995. "Daily and Intradaily Tests of European Put-Call Parity," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 30(04), pages 519-539, December.
- Kleidon, Allan W & Whaley, Robert E, 1992. " One Market? Stocks, Futures, and Options during October 1987," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(3), pages 851-877, July.
- Miller, Edward M, 1977. "Risk, Uncertainty, and Divergence of Opinion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1151-1168, September.
- Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
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