The value of shorting
This paper assesses the effects of short-sale constraints on asset prices. The analysis focuses on a particular period in Sweden during which shorting stocks was impossible but stock options were traded. Firstly, the effect on both stock options and the underlying stock was investigated jointly by considering deviations from put-call-parity. Secondly, the effects on only the derivatives were investigated by considering their implied volatilites. The main findings are: (i) the impact on pricing are consistent with a short-sale constraint, (ii) these effects are much more pronounced when shorting is not possible, (iii) these effects are not solely attributable to the mispricing of the stock, as previous research indicates, and (iv) access to international shorting markets can alleviate local short-sale constraints.
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