Understanding partial mergers in Japan
Since the late 1990s, Japan has witnessed a substantial increase of partial mergers where two or more firms spin off whole operations in the same business and combine them into a joint venture (JV). This paper provides the first academic evidence on this phenomenon. I find that partial mergers normally occur as a response to negative economic shocks by firms that are larger and more diversified than firms in total mergers. An event study identifies positive and significant returns to partial merger announcements. Unlike total mergers whose value accrues mostly to the shareholders of small (acquired) firms, large and small firms in partial mergers receive comparable returns, which are particularly large to firms forming an equally owned JV. This study also finds that partial mergers are often ex post transformed, with equity sale between partners being the main source of change.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kruse, Timothy A. & Park, Hun Y. & Park, Kwangwoo & Suzuki, Kazunori, 2007. "Long-term performance following mergers of Japanese companies: The effect of diversification and affiliation," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 154-172, April.
- Dodd, Peter & Warner, Jerold B., 1983. "On corporate governance : A study of proxy contests," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 401-438, April.
- Higgins, Huong N. & Beckman, Judy, 2006. "Abnormal returns of Japanese acquisition bidders--impact of pro-M&A legislation in the 1990s," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 250-268, June.
- Jun-Koo Kang & Anil Shivdasani & Takeshi Yamada, 2000. "The Effect of Bank Relations on Investment Decisions: An Investigation of Japanese Takeover Bids," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 2197-2218, October.
- Mantecon, Tomas, 2009. "Mitigating risks in cross-border acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 640-651, April.
- Mantecon, Tomas & Chatfield, Robert E., 2007. "An analysis of the disposition of assets in a joint venture," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2591-2611, September.
- Claire Crutchley & Enyang Guo & Robert S. Hansen, 1991. "Stockholder Benefits From Japanese-U.S. Joint Ventures," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 20(4), Winter.
- Berkovitch, Elazar & Narayanan, M. P., 1993. "Motives for Takeovers: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(03), pages 347-362, September.
- Maquieira, Carlos P. & Megginson, William L. & Nail, Lance, 1998. "Wealth creation versus wealth redistributions in pure stock-for-stock mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 3-33, April.
- McConnell, John J & Nantell, Timothy J, 1985. " Corporate Combinations and Common Stock Returns: The Case of Joint Ventures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(2), pages 519-536, June.
- Shahrur, Husayn, 2005. "Industry structure and horizontal takeovers: Analysis of wealth effects on rivals, suppliers, and corporate customers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 61-98, April.
- Inoue, Kotaro & Kato, Hideaki Kiyoshi & Bremer, Marc, 2008. "Corporate restructuring in Japan: Who monitors the monitor?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2628-2635, December.
- Megginson, William L. & Morgan, Angela & Nail, Lance, 2004. "The determinants of positive long-term performance in strategic mergers: Corporate focus and cash," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 523-552, March.
- HEGE, Ulrich & HAUSWALD, Robert, 2002.
"Ownership and control in joint ventures: theory and evidence,"
Les Cahiers de Recherche
750, HEC Paris.
- Robert Hauswald & Ulrich Hege, 2011. "Ownership and Control in Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence," Working Papers hal-00594345, HAL.
- Hauswald, Robert & Hege, Ulrich, 2003. "Ownership and Control in Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 4056, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Jean-François Hennart, 1991. "The Transaction Costs Theory of Joint Ventures: An Empirical Study of Japanese Subsidiaries in the United States," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 37(4), pages 483-497, April.
- Slovin, Myron B. & Sushka, Marie E. & Mantecon, Tomas P., 2007. "Analyzing joint ventures as corporate control activity," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 2365-2382, August.
- Dow, Sandra & McGuire, Jean, 2009. "Propping and tunneling: Empirical evidence from Japanese keiretsu," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1817-1828, October.
- Odagiri, Hiroyuki & Hase, Tatsuo, 1989. "Are mergers and acquisitions going to be popular in Japan too? : An empirical study," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 49-72, March.
- Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "A century of corporate takeovers: What have we learned and where do we stand?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2148-2177, October.
- Seung Ho Park & Michael V. Russo, 1996. "When Competition Eclipses Cooperation: An Event History Analysis of Joint Venture Failure," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(6), pages 875-890, June.
- Healy, Paul M. & Palepu, Krishna G. & Ruback, Richard S., 1992. "Does corporate performance improve after mergers?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 135-175, April.
- Clark, Kent & Ofek, Eli, 1994. "Mergers as a Means of Restructuring Distressed Firms: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(04), pages 541-565, December.
- Shyam Kumar, M.V., 2007. "Asymmetric wealth gains in joint ventures: Theory and evidence," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 19-27, March.
- Yeh, Tsung-ming & Hoshino, Yasuo, 2002. "Productivity and operating performance of Japanese merging firms: Keiretsu-related and independent mergers," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 347-366, August.
- Kang, Jun-Koo & Liu, Wei-Lin, 2008. "Bank incentives and suboptimal lending decisions: Evidence from the valuation effect of bank loan announcements in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 915-929, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)