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Curvilinear relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: An empirical analysis of cross-border acquisitions

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  • Malhotra, Shavin
  • Sivakumar, K.
  • Zhu, PengCheng

Abstract

We examine the relationship between national cultural distance and equity participation using an analysis of a sample of more than 100,000 cross-border acquisitions from 1976 to 2008. We find that cultural distance has a curvilinear (U shaped) relationship with equity participation: Acquiring firms make large equity acquisitions at both low and high cultural distances and small equity acquisitions at moderate cultural distances. In addition, we find that industry relatedness of acquisitions positively moderates the relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: Acquiring firms take a higher equity stake for a given cultural distance if the acquisitions are in a related industry. Our findings offer important insights into firms' market entry behavior and provide guidelines for managers about entry strategies.

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  • Malhotra, Shavin & Sivakumar, K. & Zhu, PengCheng, 2011. "Curvilinear relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: An empirical analysis of cross-border acquisitions," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 316-332.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:17:y:2011:i:4:p:316-332
    DOI: 10.1016/j.intman.2011.06.001
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    Cited by:

    1. Cowan, Adrian & Huang, Chia-Hsing & Padmanabhan, Prasad & Wang, Chi-Hui, 2013. "The determinants of foreign giving: An exploratory empirical investigation of US manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 407-420.
    2. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Revisiting and Reinforcing the Farmers Fox Theory: A Study (Test) of Three Cases in Cross-border Inbound Acquisitions," MPRA Paper 63561, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    3. Di Guardo, Maria Chiara & Marrocu, Emanuela & Paci, Raffaele, 2016. "The effect of local corruption on ownership strategy in cross-border mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(10), pages 4225-4241.
    4. Ojala, Arto, 2015. "Geographic, cultural, and psychic distance to foreign markets in the context of small and new ventures," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 825-835.
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    6. Yeganeh, Hamid, 2014. "A Weighted, Mahalanobian, and Asymmetrical Approach to Calculating National Cultural Distance," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 436-463.
    7. Kedia, Ben L. & Reddy, Rama Krishna, 2016. "Language and cross-border acquisitions: An exploratory study," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1321-1332.
    8. Maria Chiara Di Guardo & Emanuela Marrocu & Raffaele Paci, 2016. "The Concurrent Impact of Cultural, Political, and Spatial Distances on International Mergers and Acquisitions," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(6), pages 824-852, June.
    9. Jell-Ojobor, Maria & Windsperger, Josef, 2014. "The Choice of Governance Modes of International Franchise Firms — Development of an Integrative Model," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 153-187.
    10. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Determinants of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: A Comprehensive Review and Future Direction," MPRA Paper 63969, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    11. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.
    12. Karhunen, Päivi & Ledyaeva, Svetlana, 2012. "Corruption Distance, Anti-corruption Laws and International Ownership Strategies in Russia," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 196-208.
    13. Lahiri, Somnath & Elango, B. & Kundu, Sumit K., 2014. "Cross-border acquisition in services: Comparing ownership choice of developed and emerging economy MNEs in India," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 409-420.
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    15. Gaffney, Nolan & Karst, Rusty & Clampit, Jack, 2016. "Emerging market MNE cross-border acquisition equity participation: The role of economic and knowledge distance," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 267-275.
    16. Malhotra, Shavin & Lin, Xiaohua & Farrell, Carlyle, 2016. "Cross-national uncertainty and level of control in cross-border acquisitions: A comparison of Latin American and U.S. multinationals," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(6), pages 1993-2004.
    17. Hou, Wanrong & Li, Sali & Priem, Richard L., 2013. "How do CEOs matter? The moderating effects of CEO compensation and tenure on equity ownership in international joint ventures," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 138-151.
    18. Cho, Kang Rae & Huang, Chia-Hsing & Padmanabhan, Prasad, 2014. "Foreign ownership mode, executive compensation structure, and corporate governance: Has the literature missed an important link? Evidence from Taiwanese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 371-380.
    19. Lai, Jung-Ho & Chen, Li-Yu & Chang, Shao-Chi, 2012. "The board mechanism and entry mode choice," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 379-392.
    20. Bowe, Michael & Golesorkhi, Sougand & Yamin, Mo, 2014. "Explaining equity shares in international joint ventures: Combining the influence of asset characteristics, culture and institutional differences," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 212-233.
    21. Liou, Ru-Shiun & Chao, Mike Chen-Ho & Yang, Monica, 2016. "Emerging economies and institutional quality: Assessing the differential effects of institutional distances on ownership strategy," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 600-611.

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