Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture
After examining 121 instruments for measuring culture, we provide a historical overview and analyze how culture has been operationalized over the last half a century. Our study focuses on the topics of culture definition, dimensionality of culture models, collection and analysis of data for measuring culture, levels of culture measurement, issues of cross-cultural survey equivalence and the reliability and validity of culture measures. For each of these topics, we provide a review of existing approaches, discuss the challenges, and suggest best practices. Based on our analysis, we identify gaps in the field of culture measurement and offer directions for future research.
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Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
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- Geert Hofstede, 2006. "What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(6), pages 882-896, November.
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- Peter B Smith, 2006. "When elephants fight, the grass gets trampled: the GLOBE and Hofstede projects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(6), pages 915-921, November.
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