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Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture

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  • Taras, Vas
  • Rowney, Julie
  • Steel, Piers

Abstract

After examining 121 instruments for measuring culture, we provide a historical overview and analyze how culture has been operationalized over the last half a century. Our study focuses on the topics of culture definition, dimensionality of culture models, collection and analysis of data for measuring culture, levels of culture measurement, issues of cross-cultural survey equivalence and the reliability and validity of culture measures. For each of these topics, we provide a review of existing approaches, discuss the challenges, and suggest best practices. Based on our analysis, we identify gaps in the field of culture measurement and offer directions for future research.

Suggested Citation

  • Taras, Vas & Rowney, Julie & Steel, Piers, 2009. "Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 357-373, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:15:y:2009:i:4:p:357-373
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Blind, Georg & Stefania, Lottanti von Mandach, 2017. "Modeling the „Visitors to Rome“ effect: Reputation Building in Anglo-Saxon Buyout Funds in Japan," MPRA Paper 77761, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Barron, Andrew, 2011. "Exploring national culture's consequences on international business lobbying," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 320-327, July.
    3. Frank, Björn & Enkawa, Takao & Schvaneveldt, Shane J., 2015. "The role of individualism vs. collectivism in the formation of repurchase intent: A cross-industry comparison of the effects of cultural and personal values," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 261-278.
    4. Aggarwal, Raj & Kearney, Colm & Lucey, Brian, 2012. "Gravity and culture in foreign portfolio investment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 525-538.
    5. Drogendijk, Rian & Martín Martín, Oscar, 2015. "Relevant dimensions and contextual weights of distance in international business decisions: Evidence from Spanish and Chinese outward FDI," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 133-147.
    6. Richter, Nicole Franziska & Hauff, Sven & Schlaegel, Christopher & Gudergan, Siegfried & Ringle, Christian M. & Gunkel, Marjaana, 2016. "Using Cultural Archetypes in Cross-cultural Management Studies," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 63-83.
    7. Yip, Paul S.F. & Yousuf, Saman & Chan, Chee Hon & Yung, Tiffany & Wu, Kevin C.-C., 2015. "The roles of culture and gender in the relationship between divorce and suicide risk: A meta-analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 87-94.
    8. Tjemkes, Brian V. & Furrer, Olivier & Adolfs, Koen & Aydinlik, Arzu Ülgen, 2012. "Response strategies in an international strategic alliance experimental context: Cross-country differences," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 66-84.
    9. Nikishina, Elena, 2016. "The impact of socio-cultural factors on transaction costs and the competitive advantages of the company," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, vol. 1, pages 105-120, February.
    10. Gunkel, Marjaana & Schlägel, Christopher & Engle, Robert L., 2014. "Culture's Influence on Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study of Nine Countries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 256-274.
    11. Engelen, Andreas & Brettel, Malte & Wiest, Gregor, 2012. "Cross-functional Integration and New Product Performance — The Impact of National and Corporate Culture," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 52-65.
    12. Kaasa, Anneli & Vadi, Maaja & Varblane, Urmas, 2016. "A new dataset of cultural distances for European countries and regions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 231-241.
    13. Lau, Victor P. & Dimitrova, Mihaela N. & Shaffer, Margaret A. & Davidkov, Tzvetan & Yordanova, Desislava I., 2012. "Entrepreneurial Readiness and Firm Growth: An Integrated Etic and Emic Approach," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 147-159.
    14. Malhotra, Shavin & Sivakumar, K. & Zhu, PengCheng, 2011. "Curvilinear relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: An empirical analysis of cross-border acquisitions," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 316-332.
    15. Choi, Jaewon & Lee, Hong Joo & Sajjad, Farhana & Lee, Habin, 2014. "The influence of national culture on the attitude towards mobile recommender systems," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 65-79.
    16. Aïssaoui, Rachida & Fabian, Frances, 2015. "The French Paradox: Implications for Variations in Global Convergence," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 31-48.
    17. Wilken, Robert & Jacob, Frank & Prime, Nathalie, 2013. "The ambiguous role of cultural moderators in intercultural business negotiations," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 736-753.

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