IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/intfor/v17y2001i2p269-286.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Forecasting models and prediction intervals for the multiplicative Holt-Winters method

Author

Listed:
  • Koehler, Anne B.
  • Snyder, Ralph D.
  • Ord, J. Keith

Abstract

A new class of models for data showing trend and multiplicative seasonality is presented. The models allow the forecast error variance to depend on the trend and/ or the seasonality. It can be shown that each of these models has the same updating equations and forecast functions as the multiplicative Holt-Winters method, regardless of whether the error variation in the model is constant or not. While the point forecasts from the different models are identical, the prediction intervals will, of course, depend on the structure of the error variance and so it is essential to be able to choose the most appropriate form of model. Two methods for making this choice are presented and examined by simulation.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

Suggested Citation

  • Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Ord, J. Keith, 2001. "Forecasting models and prediction intervals for the multiplicative Holt-Winters method," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 269-286.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:17:y:2001:i:2:p:269-286
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169-2070(01)00081-4
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Peter R. Winters, 1960. "Forecasting Sales by Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 6(3), pages 324-342, April.
    2. Archibald, Blyth C., 1990. "Parameter space of the Holt-winters' model," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 199-209, July.
    3. Ahn, Sung K. & Reinsel, Gregory C., 1994. "Estimation of partially nonstationary vector autoregressive models with seasonal behavior," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 317-350, June.
    4. Ord, J.K. & Koehler, A. & Snyder, R.D., 1995. "Estimation and Prediction for a Class of Dynamic Nonlinear Statistical Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 4/95, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    5. Chatfield, Chris & Yar, Mohammed, 1991. "Prediction intervals for multiplicative Holt-Winters," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 31-37, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Zhi, 2003. "WTO accession, the "Greater China" free-trade area, and economic integration across the Taiwan Strait," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 316-349.
    2. Fofana, Ismaël & Goundan, Anatole & Magne Domgho, Léa Vicky, 2014. "Impact simulation of ECOWAS rice self-sufficiency policy:," IFPRI discussion papers 1405, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Snyder, Ralph D. & Koehler, Anne B. & Hyndman, Rob J. & Ord, J. Keith, 2004. "Exponential smoothing models: Means and variances for lead-time demand," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 158(2), pages 444-455, October.
    4. R Fildes & K Nikolopoulos & S F Crone & A A Syntetos, 2008. "Forecasting and operational research: a review," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 59(9), pages 1150-1172, September.
    5. Snyder, Ralph D. & Koehler, Anne B. & Ord, J. Keith, 2002. "Forecasting for inventory control with exponential smoothing," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-18.
    6. J. D. Bermudez & J. V. Segura & E. Vercher, 2007. "Holt-Winters Forecasting: An Alternative Formulation Applied to UK Air Passenger Data," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(9), pages 1075-1090.
    7. Hyndman, R.J. & Koehler, A.B. & Ord, J.K. & Snyder, R.D., 2001. "Prediction Intervals for Exponential Smoothing State Space Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 11/01, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    8. De Gooijer, Jan G. & Hyndman, Rob J., 2006. "25 years of time series forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 443-473.
    9. Mladenović Jelena & Lepojević Vinko & Janković-Milić Vesna, 2016. "Modelling and Prognosis of the Export of the Republic of Serbia by Using Seasonal Holt-Winters and Arima Method," Economic Themes, Sciendo, vol. 54(2), pages 233-260, June.
    10. Gulshan Kumar & Neerja Dhingra, 2009. "Growth and Forecasts of FDI Inflows to North and West Africa - An Empirical Analysis," Annals of the University of Petrosani, Economics, University of Petrosani, Romania, vol. 9(2), pages 83-102.
    11. Gardner, Everette Jr., 2006. "Exponential smoothing: The state of the art--Part II," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-666.
    12. Rossetti Renato, 2019. "Forecasting the Sales of Console Games for the Italian Market," Econometrics. Advances in Applied Data Analysis, Sciendo, vol. 23(3), pages 76-88, September.
    13. Jan G. de Gooijer & Rob J. Hyndman, 2005. "25 Years of IIF Time Series Forecasting: A Selective Review," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 05-068/4, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Anne B. Koehler & Rob J. Hyndman & Ralph D. Snyder & J. Keith Ord, 2005. "Prediction intervals for exponential smoothing using two new classes of state space models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(1), pages 17-37.
    15. So, Mike K.P. & Chung, Ray S.W., 2014. "Dynamic seasonality in time series," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 212-226.
    16. Corberán-Vallet, Ana & Bermúdez, José D. & Vercher, Enriqueta, 2011. "Forecasting correlated time series with exponential smoothing models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 252-265.
    17. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    18. Yihang Zhu & Yinglei Zhao & Jingjin Zhang & Na Geng & Danfeng Huang, 2019. "Spring onion seed demand forecasting using a hybrid Holt-Winters and support vector machine model," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(7), pages 1-18, July.
    19. J Keith Ord & Ralph D Snyder & Anne B Koehler & Rob J Hyndman & Mark Leeds, 2005. "Time Series Forecasting: The Case for the Single Source of Error State Space," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 7/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    20. Ferbar Tratar, Liljana, 2015. "Forecasting method for noisy demand," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 64-73.
    21. Bermudez, J.D. & Segura, J.V. & Vercher, E., 2006. "A decision support system methodology for forecasting of time series based on soft computing," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 177-191, November.
    22. Cote, Murray J., 2005. "A note on "Bed allocation techniques based on census data"," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 183-192, June.
    23. Pim Ouwehand & Rob J. Hyndman & Ton G. de Kok & Karel H. van Donselaar, 2007. "A state space model for exponential smoothing with group seasonality," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 7/07, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    24. Corberán-Vallet, Ana & Bermúdez, José D. & Vercher, Enriqueta, 2011. "Forecasting correlated time series with exponential smoothing models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 252-265, April.
    25. Ralph D. Snyder & Anne B. Koehler & Rob J. Hyndman & J. Keith Ord, 2002. "Exponential Smoothing for Inventory Control: Means and Variances of Lead-Time Demand," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. De Gooijer, Jan G. & Hyndman, Rob J., 2006. "25 years of time series forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 443-473.
    2. Hyndman, Rob J. & Khandakar, Yeasmin, 2008. "Automatic Time Series Forecasting: The forecast Package for R," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 27(i03).
    3. Bermudez, J.D. & Segura, J.V. & Vercher, E., 2006. "A decision support system methodology for forecasting of time series based on soft computing," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 177-191, November.
    4. Jan G. De Gooijer & Rob J. Hyndman, 2005. "25 Years of IIF Time Series Forecasting: A Selective Review," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 12/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    5. Gardner, Everette Jr., 2006. "Exponential smoothing: The state of the art--Part II," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-666.
    6. Corberán-Vallet, Ana & Bermúdez, José D. & Vercher, Enriqueta, 2011. "Forecasting correlated time series with exponential smoothing models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 252-265, April.
    7. Babai, M.Z. & Ali, M.M. & Boylan, J.E. & Syntetos, A.A., 2013. "Forecasting and inventory performance in a two-stage supply chain with ARIMA(0,1,1) demand: Theory and empirical analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 143(2), pages 463-471.
    8. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    9. Hyndman, Rob J. & Billah, Baki, 2003. "Unmasking the Theta method," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 287-290.
    10. Ralph D. Snyder, 2004. "Exponential Smoothing: A Prediction Error Decomposition Principle," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 15/04, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    11. Kim, Jae H. & Wong, Kevin & Athanasopoulos, George & Liu, Shen, 2011. "Beyond point forecasting: Evaluation of alternative prediction intervals for tourist arrivals," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 887-901, July.
    12. Rob Hyndman & Muhammad Akram & Blyth Archibald, 2008. "The admissible parameter space for exponential smoothing models," Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Springer;The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, vol. 60(2), pages 407-426, June.
    13. Snyder, Ralph D. & Koehler, Anne B. & Hyndman, Rob J. & Ord, J. Keith, 2004. "Exponential smoothing models: Means and variances for lead-time demand," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 158(2), pages 444-455, October.
    14. Bianchi, Lisa & Jarrett, Jeffrey & Choudary Hanumara, R., 1998. "Improving forecasting for telemarketing centers by ARIMA modeling with intervention," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 497-504, December.
    15. Snyder, Ralph D. & Koehler, Anne B. & Ord, J. Keith, 2002. "Forecasting for inventory control with exponential smoothing," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-18.
    16. Archibald, Blyth C. & Koehler, Anne B., 2003. "Normalization of seasonal factors in Winters' methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 143-148.
    17. So, Mike K.P. & Chung, Ray S.W., 2014. "Dynamic seasonality in time series," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 212-226.
    18. Hyndman, R.J. & Koehler, A.B. & Ord, J.K. & Snyder, R.D., 2001. "Prediction Intervals for Exponential Smoothing State Space Models," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 11/01, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    19. Ralph D. Snyder & Anne B. Koehler & Rob J. Hyndman & J. Keith Ord, 2002. "Exponential Smoothing for Inventory Control: Means and Variances of Lead-Time Demand," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    20. Ralph D Snyder, 2005. "A Pedant's Approach to Exponential Smoothing," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 5/05, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C60 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - General
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:17:y:2001:i:2:p:269-286. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijforecast .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijforecast .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.