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Lessons from the Bank of England on ‘quantitative easing’ and other ‘unconventional’ monetary policies

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  • Lyonnet, Victor
  • Werner, Richard

Abstract

This paper investigates the effectiveness of the ‘quantitative easing’ policy, as officially implemented by the Bank of England since March 2009. A policy of the same name had previously been implemented in Japan, which serves as a reference. While the majority of the previous literature has measured the effectiveness of QE by its impact on interest rates, in this paper the effectiveness of all Bank of England policies, including QE, is measured by their impact on the declared goal of the QE policy, namely nominal GDP growth. Further, unlike other works on policy evaluation, in this paper we use the general-to-specific econometric modelling methodology (a.k.a. the ‘Hendry’ or ‘LSE’ methodology) in order to determine the relative importance of Bank of England policies, including QE. The empirical analysis indicates that QE as defined and announced in March 2009 had no apparent effect on the UK economy. Meanwhile, it is found that a policy of ‘quantitative easing’ as defined in the original sense of the term (Werner, 1995c) is supported by empirical evidence: a stable relationship between a lending aggregate (disaggregated M4 lending, singling out bank credit for GDP transactions) and nominal GDP is found. The findings imply that the central bank should more directly target the growth of bank credit for GDP-transactions, which was still contracting in late 2011. A number of measures exist to boost it, but they have hitherto not been taken.

Suggested Citation

  • Lyonnet, Victor & Werner, Richard, 2012. "Lessons from the Bank of England on ‘quantitative easing’ and other ‘unconventional’ monetary policies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 94-105.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:25:y:2012:i:c:p:94-105
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2012.08.001
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    Cited by:

    1. Andy Mullineux, 2013. "Restoring The Bank Lending Channel Of Monetary Transmission," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 56(3-4), pages 225-239.
    2. Mamatzakis, Emmanuel & Bermpei, Theodora, 2014. "What drives investment bank performance? The role of risk, liquidity and fees prior to and during the crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 102-117.
    3. Emmanuel C. Mamatzakis & Anh N. Vu, 2017. "The interplay between quantitative easing and risk: the case of the Japanese banking," Working Papers 226, Bank of Greece.
    4. repec:kap:iecepo:v:15:y:2018:i:2:d:10.1007_s10368-017-0401-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Engelbert Stockhammer & Collin Constantine & Severin Reissl, 2016. "Explaining the Euro crisis: Current account imbalances, credit booms and economic policy in different economic paradigms," Working Papers PKWP1617, Post Keynesian Economics Society (PKES).
    6. Clavero, Borja, 2017. "A contribution to the Quantity Theory of Disaggregated Credit," MPRA Paper 76657, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Tzu-Kuang Hsu & Chin-Chang Tsai, 2017. "Explore the Impact of the Trading Value, The Oil Price and Quantitative Easing Policy on the Taiwan and Korea Stock Market Return with Quantile Regression," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 7(1), pages 15-26, January.
    8. Mamatzakis, Emmanuel & Matousek, Roman & Vu, Anh Nguyet, 2016. "What is the impact of bankrupt and restructured loans on Japanese bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 187-202.
    9. Werner, Richard A., 2014. "Enhanced Debt Management: Solving the eurozone crisis by linking debt management with fiscal and monetary policy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PB), pages 443-469.
    10. repec:eee:finana:v:52:y:2017:i:c:p:281-291 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Werner, Richard A., 2016. "A lost century in economics: Three theories of banking and the conclusive evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 361-379.
    12. Taoufik Bouraoui, 2015. "The effect of reducing quantitative easing on emerging markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(15), pages 1562-1573, March.
    13. repec:eee:ecolec:v:146:y:2018:i:c:p:26-34 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Ryan-Collins, Josh & Werner, Richard A. & Castle, Jennifer, 2016. "A half-century diversion of monetary policy? An empirical horse-race to identify the UK variable most likely to deliver the desired nominal GDP growth rate," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 158-176.
    15. Steeley, James M., 2015. "The side effects of quantitative easing: Evidence from the UK bond market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 303-336.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Central banking; Credit creation; General-to-specific methodology; Intermediate targets; Monetary policy; Operating tools; Qualitative easing; Quantitative easing; QE; Zero bound;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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