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The role of the merchant coalition in pre-modern Japanese economic development: an historical institutional analysis

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  • Okazaki, Tetsuji

Abstract

This paper examines the role of the merchant coalition (kabu nakama) in the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century in Japan, from the standpoint of Historical Institutional Analysis (Greif[1997, 1998]). Quantitative economic history literature has made clear that market-based economic growth started around the end of the eighteenth century in Japan. On the other hand, the Bakufu, the central government, repeatedly promulgated Aitai Sumeshi Rei (Mutual Settlement Decree), prescribing that the public authorities would not accept suits on pecuniary affairs. This implies that the public system for third-party enforcement was not working well. Activities of the merchant coalition substituted for the public third-party enforcement. Many of the merchant coalitions' codes wrote that all of each coalition's members should suspend transaction with those who cheated any one of the members of the coalition. This was the multilateral punishment strategy (MPS), formulated by Greif[1993]. It is hypothesized that kabu nakama played the role of contract enforcement using the MPS, which reduced incentives for the transaction counterparts to cheat, and thereby promoted a market economy. Also, this paper empirically examines this hypothesis, using an opportunity of a natural experiment. In 1841, the Bakufu prohibited the coalition, intending to eliminate monopoly. The above hypothesis implies that prohibition of the coalition lowered the performance of the market economy. As predicted, we found that the growth rate of the real money supply contracted, that the efficiency of price arbitrage declined, and that inflation rate went up.
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  • Okazaki, Tetsuji, 2005. "The role of the merchant coalition in pre-modern Japanese economic development: an historical institutional analysis," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 184-201, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:exehis:v:42:y:2005:i:2:p:184-201
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    1. Greif, Avner, 1993. "Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: the Maghribi Traders' Coalition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 525-548, June.
    2. Hanley, Susan B., 1983. "A High Standard of Living in Nineteenth-Century Japan: Fact or Fantasy?," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 43(01), pages 183-192, March.
    3. Greif, Avner, 1989. "Reputation and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on the Maghribi Traders," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(04), pages 857-882, December.
    4. Masahiko Aoki, 2001. "Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262011875, January.
    5. Duffy, William J. & Yamamura, Kozo, 1971. "Monetization and integration of markets in Tokugawa Japan: A spectral analysis," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 395-423.
    6. Ohkura, Takehiko & Shimbo, Hiroshi, 1978. "The Tokugawa monetary policy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 101-124, January.
    7. Wakita, Shigeru, 1996. "Rational Expectations in the Rice Futures Market of Osaka, in the 18th Century," Economic Review, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 47(3), pages 238-247, July.
    8. Yamamura, Kozo, 1973. "Toward a Reexamination of the Economic History of Tokugawa Japan, 1600–1867," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 33(03), pages 509-546, September.
    9. Greif, Avner, 1994. "Cultural Beliefs and the Organization of Society: A Historical and Theoretical Reflection on Collectivist and Individualist Societies," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(5), pages 912-950, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sahle, Esther, 2014. "Quakers, coercion and pre-modern growth: why friends’ formal institutions for contract enforcement did not matter for early Atlantic trade expansion," Economic History Working Papers 60452, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
    2. Aidin Hajikhameneh & Jared Rubin, 2017. "Reputation and Multilateral Punishment under Uncertainty," Working Papers 17-14, Chapman University, Economic Science Institute.
    3. Yamamura, Eiji, 2008. "The role of social capital in homogeneous society: Review of recent researches in Japan," MPRA Paper 11385, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Ferrali, Romain, 2012. "The Maghribi industrialists: contract enforcement in the Moroccan industry, 1956-82," Economic History Working Papers 45680, London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Economic History.
    5. Yamamura Eiji, 2008. "The Market for Lawyers and Social Capital: Are Informal Rules a Substitute for Formal Ones?," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 499-517, December.

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