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Real operating options and foreign direct investment: A synthetic approach

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  • Buckley, Adrian
  • Tse, Kalun

Abstract

The ability to change tactical direction in response to new information can contribute significant increments to value. Investments possessing this flexibility have the characteristics of options. Research and development is an obvious example. Oil exploration and mining fall into this category, levels of exploration and investment being highly contingent upon oil prices prevailing. International investment is also an example. Often, it begins with a small commitment which may be scaled upwards or curtailed, depending upon outturns achieved. In this article, the literature on real options is briefly surveyed and an attempt is made, using deductive methods, to develop a model to explain the mode of internationalization by the firm, by incorporating real options concepts as an augmentation to existing foreign direct investment (FDI) theories. Indeed, the theory of FDI produces only partial insights without extending its horizons to embrace ideas based upon net present value inclusive of the promise given by real options.

Suggested Citation

  • Buckley, Adrian & Tse, Kalun, 1996. "Real operating options and foreign direct investment: A synthetic approach," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 304-314, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eurman:v:14:y:1996:i:3:p:304-314
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    Cited by:

    1. Gilroy, Bernard Michael & Lukas, Elmar, 2002. "The New Agenda for FDI: Evidence from South Korea and Germany," MPRA Paper 17970, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Lander, Diane M. & Pinches, George E., 1998. "Challenges to the Practical Implementation of Modeling and Valuing Real Options," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(3, Part 2), pages 537-567.
    3. Li, Jing & Rugman, Alan M., 2007. "Real options and the theory of foreign direct investment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 687-712, December.
    4. Fisch, Jan Hendrik, 2008. "Internalization and internationalization under competing real options," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 108-123, June.
    5. Yongil Jeon & Taekwon Kim & Stephen M. Miller, 2004. "The Value of Waiting: Foreign Direct Investment with Uncertainty and Imperfect Local Knowledge," Working papers 2004-44, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    6. Hommel, Ulrich, 2003. "Financial versus operative hedging of currency risk," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 1-18, May.
    7. Yu-Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2011. "Institutional Uncertainty, Economic Integration, and Vertical Foreign Direct Investment Decisions," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 593-612, September.
    8. Gilroy, Bernard Michael & Lukas, Elmar, 2006. "The choice between greenfield investment and cross-border acquisition: A real option approach," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 447-465, July.
    9. Aggarwal, Raj & Kyaw, NyoNyo A., 2008. "Internal capital networks as a source of MNC competitive advantage: Evidence from foreign subsidiary capital structure decisions," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 409-439, September.
    10. Lukas, Elmar, 2007. "Dynamic market entry and the value of flexibility in transitional international joint ventures," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 91-110.
    11. Chung, Chris Changwha & Lee, Seung-Hyun & Beamish, Paul W. & Southam, Colette & Nam, Daeil (Dale), 2013. "Pitting real options theory against risk diversification theory: International diversification and joint ownership control in economic crisis," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 122-136.
    12. Yu-Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2007. "Political Risk, Economic Integration, and the Foreign Direct Investment Decision," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 208, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
    13. Keith D. Brouthers & Lance Eliot Brouthers & Steve Werner, 2008. "Real Options, International Entry Mode Choice and Performance," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(5), pages 936-960, July.
    14. Hou, Wanrong & Li, Sali & Priem, Richard L., 2013. "How do CEOs matter? The moderating effects of CEO compensation and tenure on equity ownership in international joint ventures," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 138-151.
    15. Javalgi, Rajshekhar (Raj) G. & Deligonul, Seyda & Dixit, Ashutosh & Cavusgil, S. Tamer, 2011. "International Market Reentry: A Review and Research Framework," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 377-393, August.

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