IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Preliminary design method for naturally ventilated buildings using target air change rate and natural ventilation potential maps in the United States


  • Hiyama, Kyosuke
  • Glicksman, Leon


Natural ventilation design is one of the most effective strategies for designing green buildings. The cost-effectiveness of this strategy should be considered to balance its benefits with its higher initial costs. In addition, it is becoming increasingly important to discuss the potential energy savings. For this purpose, quantitative evaluations are valued during the early stages of building planning and design because a building's shape can have large impacts on the performance of natural ventilation. However, few studies have fully examined the criteria for this type of evaluation. In this paper, a target air change rate is proposed as a desired criterion. The target air change rate is defined as the point where the gradient of the increase in the cooling effect from natural ventilation reaches a maximum. Above this point the rate of improvement in building comfort is more modest. In addition, this paper provides maps of indices for the United States. The maps help architects obtain a clear understanding of their design directions, e.g., a carefully designed natural ventilation strategy is highly recommended for building projects in warm-dry climates, where the internal gains are moderate, and for building projects in cold climates, where the internal gains are very high.

Suggested Citation

  • Hiyama, Kyosuke & Glicksman, Leon, 2015. "Preliminary design method for naturally ventilated buildings using target air change rate and natural ventilation potential maps in the United States," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 655-666.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:89:y:2015:i:c:p:655-666
    DOI: 10.1016/

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Oropeza-Perez, Ivan & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2014. "The influence of an estimated energy saving due to natural ventilation on the Mexican energy system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1080-1091.
    2. Oropeza-Perez, Ivan & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2014. "Potential of natural ventilation in temperate countries – A case study of Denmark," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 520-530.
    3. Oropeza-Perez, Ivan & Østergaard, Poul Alberg, 2014. "Energy saving potential of utilizing natural ventilation under warm conditions – A case study of Mexico," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 20-32.
    4. Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini & Ghisi, Enedir, 2014. "What is the most adequate method to assess thermal comfort in hybrid commercial buildings located in hot-humid summer climate?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 449-462.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Yujiao & Tong, Zheming & Wu, Wentao & Samuelson, Holly & Malkawi, Ali & Norford, Leslie, 2019. "Achieving natural ventilation potential in practice: Control schemes and levels of automation," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 235(C), pages 1141-1152.
    2. Gourlis, Georgios & Kovacic, Iva, 2017. "Passive measures for preventing summer overheating in industrial buildings under consideration of varying manufacturing process loads," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 1175-1185.
    3. Liwei Wen & Kyosuke Hiyama, 2018. "Target Air Change Rate and Natural Ventilation Potential Maps for Assisting with Natural Ventilation Design During Early Design Stage in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(5), pages 1-16, May.
    4. Suárez de la Fuente, Santiago & Larsen, Ulrik & Pawling, Rachel & García Kerdan, Iván & Greig, Alistair & Bucknall, Richard, 2018. "Using the forward movement of a container ship navigating in the Arctic to air-cool a marine organic Rankine cycle unit," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 1046-1059.
    5. Gil-Baez, Maite & Barrios-Padura, Ángela & Molina-Huelva, Marta & Chacartegui, R., 2017. "Natural ventilation systems in 21st-century for near zero energy school buildings," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 1186-1200.
    6. Tong, Zheming & Chen, Yujiao & Malkawi, Ali, 2017. "Estimating natural ventilation potential for high-rise buildings considering boundary layer meteorology," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 276-286.
    7. Aref Arfaei & Polat Hançer, 2019. "Effect of the Built Environment on Natural Ventilation in a Historical Environment: Case of the Walled City of Famagusta," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(21), pages 1-17, October.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:89:y:2015:i:c:p:655-666. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.