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Extended-exergy analysis of the Chinese society


  • Chen, G.Q.
  • Chen, B.


Extended-exergy analysis (EEA) for Chinese society was carried out in this paper to present a benchmarking case for future comparative studies in social systems ecology based on exergetic biophysics. For the EEA as an extension of labor theory of value and a possible sustainability metric, exergetic values were assigned to the production factors including labor, capital and environmental remediation costs. Also, the conversion coefficient of households sector was evaluated with the consideration of working hours, which significantly supplements the traditional energy and exergy accounting. The Chinese societal system was classified into seven sectors including the extraction, conversion, agriculture, industry, transportation, tertiary and households. The calculations of capital exergy and labor exergy were modified according to the special social–economic situation of China. A detailed accounting for the total societal extended-exergy use of China 2005 was conducted. Meanwhile, comparison of the net input exergy resources, extended-exergy capital, and labor of the total Chinese society during 2000–2005 was made to reveal the temporal changes using EEA. Finally, the EEA performances of China were compared with those of Norway, UK, Italy and the province of Siena to present solid foundation for energy strategy and identification of sustainable development mode.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, G.Q. & Chen, B., 2009. "Extended-exergy analysis of the Chinese society," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1127-1144.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:34:y:2009:i:9:p:1127-1144
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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