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Renewable electricity finance in the United States: A state-of-the-art review


  • Krupa, Joel
  • Harvey, L.D. Danny


This paper discusses a range of existing and emerging options for financing renewable electricity. We use the United States as a reference case study. To contextualize the discussion, we begin with scenarios for the deployment of various renewable energy technologies globally, followed by coverage of the United States renewable energy supply, supporting policies, and an introduction to renewable electricity finance for the non-specialist reader. We subsequently cover several prominent historical delivery mechanisms for the provision of renewable electricity finance, as well as key emerging opportunities. Further research in this area is encouraged.

Suggested Citation

  • Krupa, Joel & Harvey, L.D. Danny, 2017. "Renewable electricity finance in the United States: A state-of-the-art review," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 913-929.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:135:y:2017:i:c:p:913-929
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Hall, Stephen & Roelich, Katy E. & Davis, Mark E. & Holstenkamp, Lars, 2018. "Finance and justice in low-carbon energy transitions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 222(C), pages 772-780.
    2. Steffen, Bjarne, 2020. "Estimating the cost of capital for renewable energy projects," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    3. Xiaohuan Lyu & Anna Shi, 2018. "Research on the Renewable Energy Industry Financing Efficiency Assessment and Mode Selection," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(1), pages 1-13, January.
    4. Xu, Yingying, 2020. "Will energy transitions impact financial systems?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C).
    5. Ionel Jianu & Iulia Jianu, 2018. "The Share Price and Investment: Current Footprints for Future Oil and Gas Industry Performance," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(2), pages 1-15, February.
    6. Lai, Chun Sing & Locatelli, Giorgio & Pimm, Andrew & Tao, Yingshan & Li, Xuecong & Lai, Loi Lei, 2019. "A financial model for lithium-ion storage in a photovoltaic and biogas energy system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 251(C), pages 1-1.
    7. Elie, Luc & Granier, Caroline & Rigot, Sandra, 2021. "The different types of renewable energy finance: A Bibliometric analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C).
    8. Forrester, Sydney P. & Reames, Tony G., 2020. "Understanding the residential energy efficiency financing coverage gap and market potential," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 260(C).
    9. Krupa, Joel & Poudineh, Rahmatallah & Harvey, L.D. Danny, 2019. "Renewable electricity finance in the resource-rich countries of the Middle East and North Africa: A case study on the Gulf Cooperation Council," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 1047-1062.
    10. La Monaca, Sarah & Assereto, Martina & Byrne, Julie, 2018. "Clean energy investing in public capital markets: Portfolio benefits of yieldcos," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 383-393.

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