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Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy


  • Tongsopit, Sopitsuda
  • Kittner, Noah
  • Chang, Youngho
  • Aksornkij, Apinya
  • Wangjiraniran, Weerin


We investigate energy security of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) under the 4-A’s framework. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement launched in 2015 renewed a regional focus on energy security and sustainability. We employ an analytic framework to quantitatively assess progress in different categories including availability, acceptability, affordability, and applicability. Key metrics include the documentation of CO2 emissions, energy access measures, and energy supply reserves from 2005–2010. We identify relevant energy indicators using high quality historical data from the IEA and World Bank. We find that ASEAN made little progress toward establishing energy security in the previous five-year planning period (2005–2010) as it regressed in most categories except applicability. Therefore, we suggest that increased development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies would move ASEAN in a positive direction toward achieving energy security and sustainable energy policy goals.

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  • Tongsopit, Sopitsuda & Kittner, Noah & Chang, Youngho & Aksornkij, Apinya & Wangjiraniran, Weerin, 2016. "Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 60-72.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:90:y:2016:i:c:p:60-72 DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.019

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    Cited by:

    1. Narula, Kapil & Sudhakara Reddy, B. & Pachauri, Shonali & Mahendra Dev, S., 2017. "Sustainable energy security for India: An assessment of the energy supply sub-system," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 127-144.
    2. repec:eee:enepol:v:106:y:2017:i:c:p:525-535 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. repec:eco:journ2:2017-05-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Narula, Kapil & Sudhakara Reddy, B. & Pachauri, Shonali, 2017. "Sustainable Energy Security for India: An assessment of energy demand sub-system," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 186(P2), pages 126-139.
    5. Kittner, Noah & Gheewala, Shabbir H. & Kammen, Daniel M., 2016. "Energy return on investment (EROI) of mini-hydro and solar PV systems designed for a mini-grid," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 410-419.
    6. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:12:p:2140-:d:123147 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Wang, Qiang & Zhou, Kan, 2017. "A framework for evaluating global national energy security," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 188(C), pages 19-31.


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