A key review on emergy analysis and assessment of biomass resources for a sustainable future
The present study comprehensively reviews emergy analysis and performance evaluation of biomass energy. Biomass resources utilization technologies include (a) bioethanol production, (b) biomass for bio-oil, (c) biodiesel production, (d) straw as fuel in district heating plants, (e) electricity from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration power plant, (f) electricity from waste landfill gas. Systems diagrams of biomass, which are to conduct a critical inventory of processes, storage, and flows that are important to the system under consideration and are therefore necessary to evaluate, for biomasses are given. Emergy indicators, such as percent renewable (PR), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are shown to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the biomass energy. The emergy indicators show that bio-fuels from crop are not sustainable and waste management for fuels provides an emergy recovery even lower than mining fossil fuel.
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- Yüksel, Ibrahim, 2008. "Global warming and renewable energy sources for sustainable development in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 802-812.
- Kaya, Durmus, 2006. "Renewable energy policies in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 152-163, April.
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