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Attitudes towards offshore wind farms--The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

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  • Ladenburg, Jacob

Abstract

Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

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  • Ladenburg, Jacob, 2010. "Attitudes towards offshore wind farms--The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1297-1304, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:38:y:2010:i:3:p:1297-1304
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Voltaire, Louinord & Koutchade, Obafèmi Philippe, 2020. "Public acceptance of and heterogeneity in behavioral beach trip responses to offshore wind farm development in Catalonia (Spain)," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    2. Karlõševa, Aljona & Nõmmann, Sulev & Nõmmann, Tea & Urbel-Piirsalu, Evelin & Budziński, Wiktor & Czajkowski, Mikołaj & Hanley, Nick, 2016. "Marine trade-offs: Comparing the benefits of off-shore wind farms and marine protected areas," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 127-134.
    3. Janhunen, Sari & Hujala, Maija & Pätäri, Satu, 2014. "Owners of second homes, locals and their attitudes towards future rural wind farm," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 450-460.
    4. Lauren Knapp & Jacob Ladenburg, 2015. "How Spatial Relationships Influence Economic Preferences for Wind Power—A Review," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(6), pages 1-25, June.
    5. Osorio, A.F. & Ortega, Santiago & Arango-Aramburo, Santiago, 2016. "Assessment of the marine power potential in Colombia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 966-977.
    6. Hall, Damon M. & Lazarus, Eli D., 2015. "Deep waters: Lessons from community meetings about offshore wind resource development in the U.S," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 9-17.
    7. Ladenburg, Jacob & Lutzeyer, Sanja, 2012. "The economics of visual disamenity reductions of offshore wind farms—Review and suggestions from an emerging field," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(9), pages 6793-6802.
    8. Bonar, Paul A.J. & Bryden, Ian G. & Borthwick, Alistair G.L., 2015. "Social and ecological impacts of marine energy development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 486-495.
    9. Langer, Katharina & Decker, Thomas & Roosen, Jutta & Menrad, Klaus, 2016. "A qualitative analysis to understand the acceptance of wind energy in Bavaria," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 248-259.
    10. Mukherjee, Deep & Rahman, Mohammad Arshad, 2016. "To drill or not to drill? An econometric analysis of US public opinion," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 341-351.
    11. Krekel, Christian & Zerrahn, Alexander, 2017. "Does the presence of wind turbines have negative externalities for people in their surroundings? Evidence from well-being data," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 221-238.
    12. Haggett, Claire, 2011. "Understanding public responses to offshore wind power," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 503-510, February.
    13. Eleiton, Nalumu Elizabeth & Corless, Rebecca. & Hynes, Stephen, 2015. "Public Perceptions of Marine Environmental Issues: A Review," Working Papers 262590, National University of Ireland, Galway, Socio-Economic Marine Research Unit.
    14. Waldo, Åsa, 2012. "Offshore wind power in Sweden—A qualitative analysis of attitudes with particular focus on opponents," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 692-702.
    15. Westerberg, Vanja & Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl & Lifran, Robert, 2013. "The case for offshore wind farms, artificial reefs and sustainable tourism in the French mediterranean," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 172-183.
    16. Zerrahn, Alexander & Krekel, Christian, 2015. "Sowing the Wind and Reaping the Whirlwind? The Effect of Wind Turbines on Residential Well-Being," VfS Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112956, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Jenkins, Lekelia Danielle & Dreyer, Stacia Jeanne & Polis, Hilary Jacqueline & Beaver, Ezra & Kowalski, Adam A. & Linder, Hannah L. & McMillin, Thomas Neal & McTiernan, Kaylie Laura & Rogier, Thea The, 2018. "Human dimensions of tidal energy: A review of theories and frameworks," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 323-337.
    18. Ladenburg, Jacob & Dahlgaard, Jens-Olav, 2012. "Attitudes, threshold levels and cumulative effects of the daily wind-turbine encounters," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 40-46.
    19. Carlisle, Juliet E. & Kane, Stephanie L. & Solan, David & Bowman, Madelaine & Joe, Jeffrey C., 2015. "Public attitudes regarding large-scale solar energy development in the U.S," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 835-847.
    20. Vanja WESTERBERG & Jette BREDAHL JACOBSEN & Robert LIFRAN, 2012. "The Multi-faceted Nature of Preferences for Offshore Wind Farm Siting," Working Papers 12-22, LAMETA, Universtiy of Montpellier, revised Jul 2012.
    21. Ladenburg, Jacob & Termansen, Mette & Hasler, Berit, 2013. "Assessing acceptability of two onshore wind power development schemes: A test of viewshed effects and the cumulative effects of wind turbines," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 45-54.
    22. Hooper, Tara & Beaumont, Nicola & Hattam, Caroline, 2017. "The implications of energy systems for ecosystem services: A detailed case study of offshore wind," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 230-241.
    23. Menegaki, Angeliki N., 2012. "A social marketing mix for renewable energy in Europe based on consumer stated preference surveys," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 30-39.
    24. Meredith Blaydes Lilley & Jeremy Firestone & Willett Kempton, 2010. "The Effect of Wind Power Installations on Coastal Tourism," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, January.

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