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Environmental and social footprint of offshore wind energy. Comparison with onshore counterpart

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  • Kaldellis, J.K.
  • Apostolou, D.
  • Kapsali, M.
  • Kondili, E.

Abstract

Offshore wind power comprises a relatively new challenge for the international wind industry with a demonstration history of around twenty years and a ten-year commercial history for large, utility-scale projects. By comparison to other forms of electric power generation, offshore wind energy is generally considered to have relatively benign effects on the marine environment. However, offshore projects include platforms, turbines, cables, substations, grids, interconnection and shipping, dredging and associated construction activity. The Operation & Maintenance (O&M) activities include the transport of employees by vessel or helicopter and occasional hardware retrofits. Therefore, various impacts are incurred in the construction, operation and decommissioning phases; mainly the underwater noise and the impacts on the fauna. Based on the fact that in many of the aforementioned issues there are still serious environmental uncertainties, contradictive views and emerging research, the present work intents to provide a thorough literature review on the environmental and social impacts of offshore wind energy projects in comparison with the onshore counterparts.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaldellis, J.K. & Apostolou, D. & Kapsali, M. & Kondili, E., 2016. "Environmental and social footprint of offshore wind energy. Comparison with onshore counterpart," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 543-556.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:renene:v:92:y:2016:i:c:p:543-556
    DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.018
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ecolec:v:141:y:2017:i:c:p:245-260 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Liu, W.Y., 2017. "A review on wind turbine noise mechanism and de-noising techniques," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 311-320.
    3. repec:eee:enepol:v:113:y:2018:i:c:p:53-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:energy:v:126:y:2017:i:c:p:165-178 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:10:p:1512-:d:113660 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:eee:rensus:v:78:y:2017:i:c:p:597-613 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Vasileiou, Margarita & Loukogeorgaki, Eva & Vagiona, Dimitra G., 2017. "GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis for site selection of hybrid offshore wind and wave energy systems in Greece," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 745-757.
    8. Ulazia, Alain & Saenz, Jon & Ibarra-Berastegui, Gabriel, 2016. "Sensitivity to the use of 3DVAR data assimilation in a mesoscale model for estimating offshore wind energy potential. A case study of the Iberian northern coastline," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 617-627.

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