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Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone: Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

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  • Portman, Michelle E.
  • Duff, John A.
  • Köppel, Johann
  • Reisert, Jessica
  • Higgins, Megan E.

Abstract

The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations--Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research.

Suggested Citation

  • Portman, Michelle E. & Duff, John A. & Köppel, Johann & Reisert, Jessica & Higgins, Megan E., 2009. "Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone: Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3596-3607, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:9:p:3596-3607
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Griffin, Robert, 2013. "Auction designs for allocating wind energy leases on the U.S. outer continentalshelf," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 603-611.
    2. Weaver, Tyson, 2012. "Financial appraisal of operational offshore wind energy projects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 5110-5120.
    3. Nordensvärd, Johan & Urban, Frauke, 2015. "The stuttering energy transition in Germany: Wind energy policy and feed-in tariff lock-in," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 156-165.
    4. Geißler, Gesa & Köppel, Johann & Gunther, Pamela, 2013. "Wind energy and environmental assessments – A hard look at two forerunners' approaches: Germany and the United States," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 71-78.
    5. Liu, Yingqi & Kokko, Ari, 2010. "Wind power in China: Policy and development challenges," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5520-5529, October.
    6. Mostafaeipour, Ali, 2010. "Feasibility study of offshore wind turbine installation in Iran compared with the world," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(7), pages 1722-1743, September.
    7. repec:eee:enepol:v:113:y:2018:i:c:p:53-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Reiche, Danyel, 2013. "Climate policies in the U.S. at the stakeholder level: A case study of the National Football League," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 775-784.
    9. Mostafaeipour, Ali, 2010. "Productivity and development issues of global wind turbine industry," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 1048-1058, April.
    10. Liao, Zhongju, 2016. "The evolution of wind energy policies in China (1995–2014): An analysis based on policy instruments," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 464-472.
    11. Danny MacKinnon & Stuart Dawley & Markus Steen & Max-Peter Menzel & Asbjørn Karlsen & Pascal Sommer & Gard Hopsdal Hansen & Håkon Endresen Normann, 2018. "Path creation, global production networks and regional development: a comparative international analysis of the offshore wind sector," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 1810, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Feb 2018.
    12. Toonen, Hilde M. & Lindeboom, Han J., 2015. "Dark green electricity comes from the sea: Capitalizing on ecological merits of offshore wind power?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1023-1033.
    13. Bhutto, Abdul Waheed & Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed & Zahedi, Gholamreza, 2013. "Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan—wind power prospective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 519-538.

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