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Offshore wind energy development in the exclusive economic zone: Legal and policy supports and impediments in Germany and the US

  • Portman, Michelle E.
  • Duff, John A.
  • Köppel, Johann
  • Reisert, Jessica
  • Higgins, Megan E.
Registered author(s):

    The development of renewable energy as a major component of efforts to combat climate change serves as the impetus for the location of energy production facilities in coastal ocean space. Yet, while many coastal nations see offshore renewable energy development as an important way forward, the speed and manner in which these efforts take shape vary dramatically. This paper assesses the role of coastal nations' domestic legal and policy frameworks in the siting of offshore renewable energy facilities in areas under federal jurisdiction. It focuses on two nations--Germany and the United States. Both have articulated their interest in renewable offshore energy, but while Germany has approved many offshore sites, recent US proposals have for the most part stalled. Based on a review of legal and policy documents, laws and regulations, academic literature, and interviews, this research identifies and compares factors that figure most prominently for the development of offshore renewable energy policies. Comparisons are organized under four categories: the regulatory framework, the public's role in siting, targeted economic mechanisms, and indirect mechanisms. The paper concludes with observations about prominent supports and impediments and suggestions for further research.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V2W-4WCK0D1-2/2/eb44b40b4f28b1d2400e2702b29fd4ba
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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 3596-3607

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:9:p:3596-3607
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

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    1. Gan, Lin & Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Kolshus, Hans H., 2007. "Green electricity market development: Lessons from Europe and the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 144-155, January.
    2. Portman, Michelle, 2009. "Involving the public in the impact assessment of offshore renewable energy facilities," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 332-338, March.
    3. Chupka, Marc W., 2003. "Designing Effective Renewable Markets," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 46-57, May.
    4. Gillenwater, Michael, 2008. "Redefining RECs--Part 1: Untangling attributes and offsets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 2109-2119, June.
    5. Wustenhagen, Rolf & Bilharz, Michael, 2006. "Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1681-1696, September.
    6. Pehnt, Martin & Oeser, Michael & Swider, Derk J., 2008. "Consequential environmental system analysis of expected offshore wind electricity production in Germany," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 747-759.
    7. Menz, Fredric C., 2005. "Green electricity policies in the United States: case study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(18), pages 2398-2410, December.
    8. Enzensberger, N. & Wietschel, M. & Rentz, O., 2002. "Policy instruments fostering wind energy projects--a multi-perspective evaluation approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 793-801, July.
    9. Mulder, Arjen, 2008. "Do economic instruments matter? Wind turbine investments in the EU(15)," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 2980-2991, November.
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