IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings


  • Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.
  • Jackson, Tim
  • Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth


This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Atkinson, Jonathan G.B. & Jackson, Tim & Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth, 2009. "Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2582-2593, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:7:p:2582-2593

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Helm, Dieter, 2004. "Energy, the State, and the Market: British Energy Policy since 1979," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199270743.
    2. Dresner, Simon & Jackson, Tim & Gilbert, Nigel, 2006. "History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 930-939, May.
    3. Johnston, D. & Lowe, R. & Bell, M., 2005. "An exploration of the technical feasibility of achieving CO2 emission reductions in excess of 60% within the UK housing stock by the year 2050," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(13), pages 1643-1659, September.
    4. Fuchs, Doris A. & Arentsen, Maarten J., 2002. "Green electricity in the market place: the policy challenge," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 525-538, May.
    5. Ekins, Paul, 1994. "The impact of carbon taxation on the UK economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 571-579, July.
    6. Thompson, Philip B, 1997. "Evaluating energy efficiency investments: accounting for risk in the discounting process," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 989-996, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ouyang, Jinlong & Lu, Meijun & Li, Bing & Wang, Chunyuan & Hokao, Kazunori, 2011. "Economic analysis of upgrading aging residential buildings in China based on dynamic energy consumption and energy price in a market economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4902-4910, September.
    2. Sharifi, Ayyoob & Yamagata, Yoshiki, 2016. "Principles and criteria for assessing urban energy resilience: A literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1654-1677.
    3. Lund, H. & Möller, B. & Mathiesen, B.V. & Dyrelund, A., 2010. "The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1381-1390.
    4. Theodoridou, Ifigeneia & Papadopoulos, Agis M. & Hegger, Manfred, 2012. "A feasibility evaluation tool for sustainable cities – A case study for Greece," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 207-216.
    5. Egging, Ruud, 2013. "Drivers, trends, and uncertainty in long-term price projections for energy management in public buildings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 617-624.
    6. Liu, Pei & Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N. & Li, Zheng, 2010. "An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4224-4231, August.
    7. Ballarini, Ilaria & Corgnati, Stefano Paolo & Corrado, Vincenzo, 2014. "Use of reference buildings to assess the energy saving potentials of the residential building stock: The experience of TABULA project," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 273-284.

    More about this item


    Market Energy Refurbishment;


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:7:p:2582-2593. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.