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OPEC vs US shale: Analyzing the shift to a market-share strategy

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  • Behar, Alberto
  • Ritz, Robert A.

Abstract

In November 2014, OPEC announced a new strategy geared towards improving its market share. Oil-market analysts interpreted this as an attempt to squeeze higher-cost producers, notably US shale oil, out of the market. Over the next year, crude oil prices crashed, with large repercussions for the global economy. We present a simple equilibrium model that explains the fundamental market factors that can rationalize such a “regime switch” by OPEC: (i) the growth of US shale oil production; (ii) the slowdown of global oil demand; (iii) reduced cohesiveness of the OPEC cartel; and (iv) production ramp-ups in other non-OPEC countries; while (v) reductions in US shale costs act against these factors. We show that these qualitative predictions are broadly consistent with oil market developments during 2014–2015. The model is calibrated to oil market data; it predicts accommodation up to 2014 and a market-share strategy thereafter, and explains large oil-price swings as well as realistically high levels of OPEC output.

Suggested Citation

  • Behar, Alberto & Ritz, Robert A., 2017. "OPEC vs US shale: Analyzing the shift to a market-share strategy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 185-198.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:185-198
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2016.12.021
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Jia Liao & Yu Shi & Xiangyun Xu, 2018. "Why Is the Correlation between Crude Oil Prices and the US Dollar Exchange Rate Time-Varying?—Explanations Based on the Role of Key Mediators," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(3), pages 1-13, June.
    2. Antonio J. Garzón & Luis Á. Hierro, 2018. "Fracking, Wars and Stock Market Crashes: The Price of Oil During the Great Recession," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(2), pages 20-30.
    3. Yue Liu & Hao Dong & Pierre Failler, 2019. "The Oil Market Reactions to OPEC’s Announcements," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(17), pages 1-15, August.
    4. Thomas S. Gundersen, 2020. "The Impact of U.S. Supply Shocks on the Global Oil Price," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).
    5. Álvarez, Irma Alonso & Di Nino, Virginia & Venditti, Fabrizio, 2020. "Strategic interactions and price dynamics in the global oil market," Working Paper Series 2368, European Central Bank.
    6. Jaakkola, Niko, 2019. "Carbon taxation, OPEC and the end of oil," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 101-117.
    7. Ansari, Dawud, 2017. "OPEC, Saudi Arabia, and the shale revolution: Insights from equilibrium modelling and oil politics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 166-178.
    8. Karanfil, Fatih & Omgba, Luc Désiré, 2017. "Reconsidering the scarcity factor in the dynamics of oil markets: An empirical investigation of the (mis)measurement of oil reserves," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C), pages 209-218.
    9. Afees A. Salisu & Idris Adediran, 2018. "US shale oil and the behaviour of commodity prices," Working Papers 047, Centre for Econometric and Allied Research, University of Ibadan.
    10. Ansari, Dawud, 2017. "OPEC, Saudi Arabia, and the shale revolution: Insights from equilibrium modelling and oil politics," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 166-178.
    11. Razek, Noha H.A. & Michieka, Nyakundi M., 2019. "OPEC and non-OPEC production, global demand, and the financialization of oil," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 201-225.
    12. Berk, Istemi & Çam , Eren, 2019. "The Shift in Global Crude Oil Market Structure: A model-based analysis of the period 2013–2017," EWI Working Papers 2019-5, Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI).
    13. Wachtmeister, Henrik & Henke, Petter & Höök, Mikael, 2018. "Oil projections in retrospect: Revisions, accuracy and current uncertainty," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 220(C), pages 138-153.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Crude oil; Limit pricing; Market share; OPEC; Shale oil;

    JEL classification:

    • L12 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Monopoly; Monopolization Strategies
    • L71 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction - - - Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices

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