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The value of supply security: The costs of power outages to Austrian households, firms and the public sector


  • Reichl, Johannes
  • Schmidthaler, Michael
  • Schneider, Friedrich


This paper presents a model for assessing economic losses caused by electricity cuts as well as Willingness-to-Pay to avoid these power outages as an approximation to the value of supply security. The economic effects for simulated power cuts from 1 to 48h, which take the affected provinces, the day of the week and the time of day into consideration, can be calculated using the assessment tool APOSTEL. The costs due to power cuts are computed separately for all sectors of the economy and for households. The average value of lost load for Austrian households and non-household consumers in the case of a power cut of 1h on a summer workday morning was calculated to be 17.1€ per kWh of electricity not supplied.

Suggested Citation

  • Reichl, Johannes & Schmidthaler, Michael & Schneider, Friedrich, 2013. "The value of supply security: The costs of power outages to Austrian households, firms and the public sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 256-261.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:36:y:2013:i:c:p:256-261 DOI: 10.1016/j.eneco.2012.08.044

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Johannes Reichl & Sylvia Frühwirth-Schnatter, 2012. "A censored random coefficients model for the detection of zero willingness to pay," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 259-281, June.
    2. de Nooij, Michiel & Koopmans, Carl & Bijvoet, Carlijn, 2007. "The value of supply security: The costs of power interruptions: Economic input for damage reduction and investment in networks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 277-295, March.
    3. Reichl, Johannes & Kollmann, Andrea & Tichler, Robert & Schneider, Friedrich, 2008. "The importance of incorporating reliability of supply criteria in a regulatory system of electricity distribution: An empirical analysis for Austria," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3862-3871, October.
    4. Woo, Chi-Keung & Pupp, Roger L., 1992. "Costs of service disruptions to electricity consumers," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 109-126.
    5. Tooraj Jamasb and Michael Pollitt, 2005. "Electricity Market Reform in the European Union: Review of Progress toward Liberalization & Integration," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 11-42.
    6. M. Munasinghe & A. Sanghvi, 1988. "Reliability of Electricity Supply, Outage Costs and Value of Service: An Overview," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 1-18.
    7. Baarsma, Barbara E. & Hop, J. Peter, 2009. "Pricing power outages in the Netherlands," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1378-1386.
    8. Daniel McFadden, 1996. "Computing Willingness-to-Pay in Random Utility Models," Working Papers _011, University of California at Berkeley, Econometrics Laboratory Software Archive.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


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    Cited by:

    1. Clementina Bruno & Ugo Finardi & Azahara Lorite-Espejo & Elena Ragazzi, 2016. "Emerging costs deriving from blackouts for individual firms: evidence from an Italian case study," quaderni IRCrES 201601, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY - former Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
    2. Kim, Jihyo & Kim, Jinsoo & Kim, Yoon Kyung, 2016. "Korean public's preference for supply security of oil and gas and the impact of protest bidders," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 202-213.
    3. Abrate, Graziano & Bruno, Clementina & Erbetta, Fabrizio & Fraquelli, Giovanni & Lorite-Espejo, Azahara, 2016. "A choice experiment on the willingness of households to accept power outages," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(PB), pages 151-164.
    4. Mubashir Qasim & Koji Kotani, 2014. "An empirical analysis of energy shortage in Pakistan," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 21(1), pages 137-166, June.
    5. Michael Schmidthaler & Jed Cohen & Johannes Reichl & Stefan Schmidinger, 2015. "The effects of network regulation on electricity supply security: a European analysis," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 285-316, December.
    6. Kim, Kayoung & Cho, Youngsang, 2017. "Estimation of power outage costs in the industrial sector of South Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 236-245.
    7. Hagspiel, Simeon, 2017. "Reliable Electricity: The Effects of System Integration and Cooperative Measures to Make it Work," EWI Working Papers 2017-13, Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI).
    8. Cohen, Jed J. & Moeltner, Klaus & Reichl, Johannes & Schmidthaler, Michael, 2016. "Linking the value of energy reliability to the acceptance of energy infrastructure: Evidence from the EU," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 124-143.
    9. Menegaki, Angeliki, N. & Olsen, Søren Bøye & Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P., 2016. "Towards a common standard – A reporting checklist for web-based stated preference valuation surveys and a critique for mode surveys," Journal of choice modelling, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 18-50.
    10. repec:eee:appene:v:212:y:2018:i:c:p:141-150 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Röpke, Luise, 2013. "The development of renewable energies and supply security: A trade-off analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1011-1021.
    12. repec:eee:eneeco:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:272-285 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Castro, Rui & Faias, Sérgio & Esteves, Jorge, 2016. "The cost of electricity interruptions in Portugal: Valuing lost load by applying the production-function approach," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 48-57.
    14. Elie Bouri & Joseph El Assad, 2016. "The Lebanese Electricity Woes: An Estimation of the Economical Costs of Power Interruptions," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(8), pages 1-12, July.
    15. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:2:p:491-:d:131578 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Woo, C.K. & Ho, T. & Shiu, A. & Cheng, Y.S. & Horowitz, I. & Wang, J., 2014. "Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 204-210.
    17. Friedl, Christina & Reichl, Johannes, 2016. "Realizing energy infrastructure projects – A qualitative empirical analysis of local practices to address social acceptance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 184-193.
    18. Wolf, André & Wenzel, Lars, 2015. "Welfare implications of power rationing: An application to Germany," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 53-62.
    19. Månsson, André & Johansson, Bengt & Nilsson, Lars J., 2014. "Assessing energy security: An overview of commonly used methodologies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 1-14.
    20. Piaszeck, Simon & Wenzel, Lars & Wolf, André, 2013. "Regional diversity in the costs of electricity outages: Results for German counties," HWWI Research Papers 142, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    21. Kim, Kayoung & Nam, Heekoo & Cho, Youngsang, 2015. "Estimation of the inconvenience cost of a rolling blackout in the residential sector: The case of South Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 76-86.
    22. Nahmmacher, Paul & Schmid, Eva & Pahle, Michael & Knopf, Brigitte, 2016. "Strategies against shocks in power systems – An analysis for the case of Europe," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 455-465.
    23. Saastamoinen, Antti & Kuosmanen, Timo, 2016. "Quality frontier of electricity distribution: Supply security, best practices, and underground cabling in Finland," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 281-292.
    24. Wolf, André & Wenzel, Lars, 2016. "Regional diversity in the costs of electricity outages: Results for German counties," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(PB), pages 195-205.
    25. Rahmatallah Poudineh and Tooraj Jamasb, 2017. "Electricity Supply Interruptions: Sectoral Interdependencies and the Cost of Energy Not Served for the Scottish Economy," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1).

    More about this item


    Power outage; Value of supply security; Empirical analysis; End-user survey;

    JEL classification:

    • N74 - Economic History - - Economic History: Transport, International and Domestic Trade, Energy, and Other Services - - - Europe: 1913-
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • P28 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Natural Resources; Environment


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