IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Networks and the disappearance of the intranational home bias


  • Garmendia, Aitor
  • Llano, Carlos
  • Minondo, Asier
  • Requena, Francisco


Previous studies have shown that, not only countries, but also regions have a preference to trade within their administrative borders. Using unique trade flows data, we also find a large home bias in Spanish intranational trade. However, we show that this home bias tends to disappear once we take into account the higher density of social and business networks within regions than between regions. We also find that the home bias does not disappear if intranational trade flows are measured in quantity rather than value. This fact might explain why previous studies on other European countries still find an intranational home bias, even when network effects are taken into account.

Suggested Citation

  • Garmendia, Aitor & Llano, Carlos & Minondo, Asier & Requena, Francisco, 2012. "Networks and the disappearance of the intranational home bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(2), pages 178-182.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:116:y:2012:i:2:p:178-182 DOI: 10.1016/j.econlet.2012.02.021

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Turrini, Alessandro & van Ypersele, Tanguy, 2010. "Traders, courts, and the border effect puzzle," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2-3), pages 81-91, May.
    2. Carlos Llano‐Verduras & Asier Minondo & Francisco Requena‐Silvente, 2011. "Is the Border Effect an Artefact of Geographical Aggregation?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(10), pages 1771-1787, October.
    3. Russell Hillberry & David Hummels, 2003. "Intranational Home Bias: Some Explanations," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1089-1092, November.
    4. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Lafourcade, Miren & Mayer, Thierry, 2005. "The trade-creating effects of business and social networks: evidence from France," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 1-29, May.
    5. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
    6. Condeço-Melhorado, Ana & Gutiérrez, Javier & García-Palomares, Juan Carlos, 2011. "Spatial impacts of road pricing: Accessibility, regional spillovers and territorial cohesion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 185-203, March.
    7. Holger C. Wolf, 2000. "Intranational Home Bias In Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 555-563, November.
    8. Gould, David M, 1994. "Immigrant Links to the Home Country: Empirical Implications for U.S. Bilateral Trade Flows," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 76(2), pages 302-316, May.
    9. Hillberry, Russell & Hummels, David, 2008. "Trade responses to geographic frictions: A decomposition using micro-data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 527-550, April.
    10. McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-623, June.
    11. Daniel L. Millimet & Thomas Osang, 2007. "Do state borders matter for U.S. intranational trade? The role of history and internal migration," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(1), pages 93-126, February.
    12. James E. Rauch & Vitor Trindade, 2002. "Ethnic Chinese Networks In International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 116-130, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Lauren Cohen & Umit G. Gurun & Christopher J. Malloy, 2012. "Resident Networks and Firm Trade," NBER Working Papers 18312, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Groizard, José Luis & Marques, Helena & Santana, María, 2014. "Islands in trade: Disentangling distance from border effects," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 8, pages 1-46.
    3. Burchardi, Konrad B. & Chaney, Thomas & Hassan, Tarek, 2015. "Migrants, Ancestors, and Investments," CEPR Discussion Papers 11025, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Tamara Mata & Carlos Llano, 2013. "Social networks and trade of services: modelling interregional flows with spatial and network autocorrelation effects," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 319-367, July.
    5. Thomas Chaney, 2014. "The Network Structure of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(11), pages 3600-3634, November.
    6. Bogang Jun & Aamena Alshamsi & Jian Gao & Cesar A Hidalgo, 2017. "Relatedness, Knowledge Diffusion, and the Evolution of Bilateral Trade," Papers 1709.05392,
    7. Ron Boschma & Víctor Martín & Asier Minondo, 2017. "Neighbour regions as the source of new industries," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(2), pages 227-245, June.
    8. Nuria Gallego & Carlos Llano, 2014. "The Border Effect and the Nonlinear Relationship between Trade and Distance," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 1016-1048, November.
    9. Fuchs-Schündeln, N. & Hassan, T.A., 2016. "Natural Experiments in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, Elsevier.
    10. Hayakawa, Kazunobu, 2017. "Domestic and international border effects: The cases of China and Japan," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 118-126.
    11. Llano, C. & De la Mata, T. & Díaz-Lanchas, J. & Gallego, N., 2017. "Transport-mode competition in intra-national trade: An empirical investigation for the Spanish case," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 334-355.
    12. Diaz-Lanchas, Jorge & Llano, Carlos & Zofío, José Luis, 2013. "Trade margins, transport cost thresholds and market areas: Municipal freight flows and urban hierarchy," Working Papers in Economic Theory 2013/10, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain), Department of Economic Analysis (Economic Theory and Economic History).
    13. James LeSage & Carlos Llano-Verduras, 2014. "Forecasting spatially dependent origin and destination commodity flows," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 1543-1562, December.

    More about this item


    Home bias; State borders; Intranational trade; Networks; Business groups; Spain;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolet:v:116:y:2012:i:2:p:178-182. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.