An analysis of health expenditure on a microdata population basis
The objective of this paper is to analyse the hospitalisation and the pharmaceutical expenditures of a population. To do so, we will use cross-sectional information for the year 2004, referring to the whole population of one of the seventeen autonomous communities that make up the Spanish public health system, namely, Aragón. Given the important proportion of null expenditures, a model that takes into account the censored nature of the data must be specified. In our case, the model we choose is Heckman's (1979) selection model. The results are conclusive. i) Age, being a pensioner and being of Spanish nationality positively influence the generation of both types of expenditure; ii) on the contrary, the distance from the health centre to the hospital affects them negatively; iii) sex notably influences the generation of both types of expenditure, women generating higher level of expenditures; iv), in both cases, significant differences appear associated with the zone to which the user belongs; and v) we have also found that pharmaceutical expenditure depends significantly on the doctor who is prescribing.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael Grossman, 1972. "The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gros72-1.
- Angel López-Nicolás, 1998.
"Unobserved heterogeneity and censoring in the demand for health care,"
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(5), pages 429-437.
- Ángel López Nicolás, 1997. "Unobserved heterogeneity and censoring in the demand for health care," Economics Working Papers 240, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Ángel López Nicolás, 1997. "Unobserved heterogeneity and censoring in the demand for health care," Working Papers, Research Center on Health and Economics 240, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Anindya Sen, 2005. "Is Health Care a Luxury? New Evidence from OECD Data," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 147-164, June.
- Martin Schellhorn & Andreas E. Stuck & Christoph E. Minder & John C. Beck, 2000. "Health services utilization of elderly Swiss: evidence from panel data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(6), pages 533-545.
- Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-161, January.
- Begoña Álvarez, 2001. "La demanda atendida de consultas médicas y servicios urgentes en España," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 25(1), pages 93-138, January.
- Sergi Jiménez-Martín & José M. Labeaga & Maite Martínez-Granado, 2002. "Latent class versus two-part models in the demand for physician services across the European Union," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(4), pages 301-321.
- Gerdtham, U. -G. & Johannesson, M. & Lundberg, L. & Isacson, D., 1999. "The demand for health: results from new measures of health capital," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 501-521, September.
- Wagstaff, Adam, 1986. "The demand for health : Some new empirical evidence," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 195-233, September.
- Winfried Pohlmeier & Volker Ulrich, 1995. "An Econometric Model of the Two-Part Decisionmaking Process in the Demand for Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 339-361.
- Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-844, September.
- Cauley, Stephen Day, 1987. "The Time Price of Medical Care," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 59-66, February.
- Leibowitz, Arleen & Friedman, Bernard, 1979. "Family Bequests and the Derived Demand for Health Inputs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 17(3), pages 419-434, July.
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-255, March-Apr.
- A. C. Cameron & P. K. Trivedi & Frank Milne & J. Piggott, 1988. "A Microeconometric Model of the Demand for Health Care and Health Insurance in Australia," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(1), pages 85-106.
- Rosanna M. Coffey, 1983. "The Effect of Time Price on the Demand for Medical-Care Services," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 18(3), pages 407-424.
- Rodolfo Nayga, 2000. "Schooling, health knowledge and obesity," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(7), pages 815-822.
- Guillem Lopez-Casasnovas & Joan Costa-Font & Ivan Planas, 2005. "Diversity and regional inequalities in the Spanish 'system of health care services'," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(S1), pages 221-235.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
- Ignacio Abasolo & Rob Manning & Andrew Jones, 2001. "Equity in utilization of and access to public-sector GPs in Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(3), pages 349-364.
- Jorgen Lauridsen & Mickael Bech & Fernando López & Mariluz Sánchez, 2010. "A spatiotemporal analysis of public pharmaceutical expenditure," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 44(2), pages 299-314, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecmode:v:28:y:2011:i:1-2:p:169-180. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.