Accounting for discrepancies in bilateral trade: The case of China, Hong Kong, and the United States
China's reported exports to the United States have long been smaller than U.S.-reported imports from China. Earlier explanations for this focused on re-exports through Hong Kong, and appeared to account for most of the difference. Now, even after taking Hong Kong into account properly, there has emerged a new and growing discrepancy which amounted in 2005 to $46 billion, perhaps 20% of the "true" value. Comparisons of detailed customs records from China, Hong, Kong, and the United States show that direct exports from Chinese ports and Chinese exports through third countries account for much of the discrepancy, relative to trade flows involving Hong Kong. Transshipment and re-exports through Hong Kong seem no longer to be the major explanation of the discrepancies, especially in recent years. Adjustment for a likely double-counting between re-exports and transshipments make the estimated discrepancy for 2005 increase to $59 billion.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Raymond Fisman & Shang-Jin Wei, 2004.
"Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from "Missing Imports" in China,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 471-500, April.
- Raymond Fisman & Shang-Jin Wei, 2001. "Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from "Missing Imports" in China," NBER Working Papers 8551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fisman, Raymond & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2001. "Tax Rates and Tax Evasion: Evidence from 'Missing Imports' in China," CEPR Discussion Papers 3089, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Robert C. Feenstra, 2001.
"Intermediaries in Entrepot Trade: Hong Kong Re-Exports of Chinese Goods,"
NBER Working Papers
8088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 2004. "Intermediaries in Entrepot Trade: Hong Kong Re-Exports of Chinese Goods," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 3-35, 03.
- Javorcik, Beata & Narciso, Gaia, 2008.
"Differentiated Products and Evasion of Import Tariffs,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6804, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Javorcik, Beata S. & Narciso, Gaia, 2008. "Differentiated products and evasion of import tariffs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 208-222, December.
- Javorcik, Beata S. & Narciso, Gaia, 2007. "Differentiated products and evasion of import tariffs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4123, The World Bank.
- K.C. Fung & LawrenceJ. Lau & Yanyan Xiong, 2006. "Adjusted Estimates Of United States-China Bilateral Trade Balances: An Update," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 299-314, October.
- Gehlhar, Mark, 1996. "Reconciling Bilateral Trade Data for Use in GTAP," GTAP Technical Papers 313, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
- Andriamananjara, Soamiely & Arce, Hugh M. & Ferrantino, Michael J., 2004. "Transshipment in the United States," Working Papers 15871, United States International Trade Commission, Office of Economics.
- Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Peter K. Schott, 2006.
"Transfer Pricing by U.S.-Based Multinational Firms,"
NBER Working Papers
12493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Andrew Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Peter Schott, 2008. "Transfer Pricing by U.S.-Based Multinational Firms," Working Papers 08-29, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Outsourcing Tariff Evasion: A New Explanation for EntrepÃ´t Trade," IMF Working Papers 05/102, International Monetary Fund.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:chieco:v:19:y:2008:i:3:p:502-520. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.