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Why does scholastic achievement differ across prefectures in Japan?


  • Nakamura, Hideki


Using prefecture-level data on scholastic achievement tests in Japan, we found that parental income and education level positively affect student achievement. The effect of income on achievement is stronger for the high-scoring prefectures than for the low-scoring prefectures. The presence of grandparents also has a strong positive effect on student achievement. While the cross term between the percentage of absentees and the quantity of teachers is important in identifying the positive effects of teacher quantity, the effects of this quantity on elementary school achievement is nonlinear. We confirm the importance of teacher quality in determining junior high school achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Nakamura, Hideki, 2012. "Why does scholastic achievement differ across prefectures in Japan?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 99-106.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:asieco:v:23:y:2012:i:1:p:99-106 DOI: 10.1016/j.asieco.2011.10.002

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Tanaka, Ryuichi, 2008. "The gender-asymmetric effect of working mothers on children's education: Evidence from Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 586-604, December.
    3. Nakajima, Tetsuya & Nakamura, Hideki, 2012. "How Do Elementary And Higher Education Affect Human Capital Accumulation And Inequality? A Note," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(01), pages 151-158, February.
    4. Nakajima, Tetsuya & Nakamura, Hideki, 2009. "The price of education and inequality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 105(2), pages 183-185, November.
    5. Hanushek, Eric A., 2002. "Publicly provided education," Handbook of Public Economics,in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 30, pages 2045-2141 Elsevier.
    6. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-838, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hideki Nakamura, 2013. "Wages of regular and irregular workers, the price of education, and income inequality," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 11(4), pages 517-533, December.

    More about this item


    Achievement tests in Japan; Home environment; School environment; Quality and quantity of teachers;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy


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